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  • Author or Editor: M. A. McCrackin Stevenson x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare in vitro replication kinetics and nucleoside analog susceptibilities of a natural feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) isolate (FIV-Maxam), a molecular clone of FIV (FIV-pPPR), and two (-)-β-L-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine- (3TC-) resistant mutants of FIV-pPPR.

Sample Population—Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 4 specific-pathogenfree cats.

Procedure—Two point mutations corresponding to mutations of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were engineered into the highly conserved YMDD motif of the reverse transcriptase- (RT-) encoding region of the FIV-pPPR pol gene. Replication kinetics and nucleoside analog susceptibilities of FIV-Maxam, FIV-pPPR, and the 2 mutant viruses were measured in vitro, using feline PBMC.

Results—Replication kinetics and nucleoside analog susceptibilities were similar between FIV-Maxam and FIV-pPPR. However, FIV-Maxam was significantly more susceptible to 3TC. A methionine-to-valine mutation at codon 183 (M183V) of the RT-encoding region of the pol gene of FIV-pPPR conferred highlevel phenotypic resistance to 3TC and cross-resistance to the related compound (-)-β-L-2',3'-dideoxy-5- fluoro-3'-thiacytidine.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Similarities between FIV-Maxam and FIV-pPPR suggest that results of studies performed using FIV-pPPR will have relevance to natural FIV infection in cats. In vitro evaluation of nucleoside analog susceptibilities of FIV-Maxam may help determine concentrations of nucleoside analogs required for effective treatment of FIV-infected cats.

Impact for Human Medicine—3TC resistance of FIV-pPPR M183V was similar in magnitude to that of HIV-1 M184V, a mutant described in infected humans treated with 3TC. Thus, FIV-pPPR M183V may be a useful model for studying the in vivo effects of 3TC resistance on lentivirus pathogenesis. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:588–594)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a group of 3 genetic differences in the nonstructural protein (NS1) or 1 genetic difference in the structural protein (VP2) of Aleutian disease parvovirus (ADV) is responsible for an increase in the in vivo replication and pathogenicity of G/U-8, a chimera of ADV-G (nonpathogenic) and ADVUtah (pathogenic), compared with G/U-10.

Animals—32 eight-month-old female sapphire mink (Mustela vison).

Procedure—Chimeric viruses were constructed, propagated in vitro, and used to inoculate mink. Antiviral antibody responses, presence of serum viral nucleic acid, and serum gamma globulin concentrations were monitored for 120 days following inoculation. Histologic examination of the liver, kidneys, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes was performed after necropsy.

Results—A chimera containing only the 3 amino acid substitutions in NS1 did not elicit measurable responses indicative of replication or pathogenicity in inoculated mink. Serum antiviral antibody responses, frequency of detection of viral nucleic acid in serum, gamma globulin response, and histologic changes in mink inoculated with chimeras containing a valine residue at codon 352 (352V) of VP2 capsid were increased, compared with values from mink inoculated with chimeric viruses that did not contain 352V.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A valine residue at codon 352 in the VP2 capsid protein of ADV affects in vivo viral replication and pathogenicity. This amino acid may be part of an incompletely defined pathogenic determinant of ADV. Further characterization of the pathogenic determinant may allow future development of focused preventive and therapeutic interventions for Aleutian disease of mink. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1658–1663)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether signalment, duration of hernia, clinical signs, contents of hernia, CBC and serum biochemical abnormalities, concurrent injuries, perioperative treatment and administration of analgesics, results of intraoperative anesthetic monitoring data, or level of training of the veterinarian performing the herniorrhaphy was associated with mortality rate after surgical repair of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—34 cats.

Procedure—Review of medical records and a telephone follow-up with owners and referring veterinarians were performed.

Results—Mean age of affected cats was 3.6 years; cats that survived to the time of discharge were significantly younger than cats that died or were euthanatized. Tachypnea was the most common clinical sign at hospital admission; cats that survived to the time of discharge had significantly higher respiratory rates than cats that died or were euthanatized after surgery. Postoperative complications developed in 50% of cats; tachypnea and dyspnea were most common. Mortality rate was not associated with duration of hernia or results of preoperative CBC and serum biochemical analyses, but was significantly associated with concurrent injuries. Mortality rate was not associated with hernia contents, intraoperative use of positive inotropes or corticosteroids, episodes of hypotension or severe hypoxia during anesthesia, or level of training of the veterinarian performing the surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats that are older or have low to mildly increased respiratory rates and concurrent injuries are more likely to die after surgical repair of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1237–1240)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of imipenem (5 mg/kg) after single-dose IV, IM, and SC administrations in dogs and assess the ability of plasma samples to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli in vitro.

Animals—6 adult dogs.

Procedure—A 3-way crossover design was used. Plasma concentrations of imipenem were measured after IV, IM, and SC administration by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. An agar well antimicrobial assay was performed with 3 E coli isolates that included a reference strain and 2 multidrug-resistant clinical isolates.

Results—Plasma concentrations of imipenem remained above the reported minimum inhibitory concentration for E coli (0.06 to 0.25 µg/mL) for a minimum of 4 hours after IV, IM, and SC injections. Harmonic mean and pseudo-standard deviation halflife of imipenem was 0.80 ± 0.23, 0.92 ± 0.33, and 1.54 ± 1.02 hours after IV, IM, and SC administration, respectively. Maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of imipenem after IM and SC administration were 13.2 ± 4.06 and 8.8 ± 1.7 mg/L, respectively. Time elapsed from drug administration until Cmax was 0.50 ± 0.16 hours after IM and 0.83 ± 0.13 hours after SC injection. Growth of all 3 E coli isolates was inhibited in the agar well antimicrobial assay for 2 hours after imipenem administration by all routes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Imipenem is rapidly and completely absorbed from intramuscular and subcutaneous tissues and effectively inhibits in vitro growth of certain multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of E coli. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:694–699)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the pharmacokinetics of lamivudine (3TC) in cats.

Animals—6 sexually intact 9-month-old barrier-reared domestic shorthair cats.

Procedure—Cats were randomly alloted into 3 groups, and lamivudine (25 mg/kg) was administered IV, intragastrically (IG), and PO in a 3-way crossover study design with 2-week washout periods between experiments. Plasma samples were collected for 12 hours after drug administration, and lamivudine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax), time to reach Cmax (Tmax), and bioavailability were compared between IG and PO routes. Area under the curve (AUC) and terminal phase halflife (t½) among the 3 administration routes were also compared.

Results—Plasma concentrations of lamivudine declined rapidly with a t½ of 1.9 ± 0.21 hours, 2.6 ± 0.66 hours, and 2.7 ± 1.50 hours after IV, IG, and PO administration, respectively. Total body clearance and steady-state volume of distribution were 0.22 ± 0.09 L/h/kg and 0.60 ± 0.22 L/kg, respectively. Mean Tmax for IG administration (0.5 hours) was significantly shorter than Tmax for PO administration (1.1 hours). The AUC after IV, IG, and PO administration was 130 ± 55.2 mg·h/L, 115 ± 97.5 mg·h/L, and 106 ± 94.9 mg·h/L, respectively. Lamivudine was well absorbed after IG and PO administration with bioavailability values of 88 ± 45% and 80 ± 52%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats had a shorter t½ but slower total clearance of lamivudine, compared with humans. Plasma concentrations of lamivudine were maintained above the minimum effective concentration for inhibiting FIV replication by 50% (0.14µM [0.032 µg/mL] for wild-type FIV clinical isolate) for at least 12 hours after IV, IG, or PO administration. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:841–846)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the pharmacokinetics of zidovudine (AZT) in cats.

Animals—6 sexually intact 9-month-old barrier-reared domestic shorthair cats.

Procedure—Cats were randomly alloted into 3 groups, and zidovudine (25 mg/kg) was administered IV, intragastrically (IG), and PO in a 3-way crossover study design with 2-week washout periods between experiments. Plasma samples were collected for 12 hours after drug administration, and zidovudine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax), time to reach Cmax (Tmax), and bioavailability were compared between IG and PO routes. Area under the curve (AUC) and terminal phase halflife (t½) among the 3 administration routes were also compared.

Results—Plasma concentrations of zidovudine declined rapidly with t½ of 1.4 ± 0.19 hours, 1.4 ± 0.16 hours, and 1.5 ± 0.28 hours after IV, IG, and PO administration, respectively. Total body clearance and steady-state volume of distribution were 0.41 ± 0.10 L/h/kg and 0.82 ± 0.15 L/kg, respectively. Mean Tmax for IG administration (0.22 hours) was significantly shorter than Tmax for PO administration (0.67 hours). The AUC after IV and PO administration was 64.7 ± 16.6 mg·h/L and 60.5 ± 17.0 mg·h/L, respectively, whereas AUC for the IG route was significantly less at 42.5 ± 9.41 mg·h/L. Zidovudine was well absorbed after IG and PO administration with bioavailability values of 70 ± 24% and 95 ± 23%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats had slower clearance of zidovudine, compared with other species. Plasma concentrations of zidovudine were maintained above the minimum effective concentration for inhibiting FIV replication by 50% (0.07µM [0.019 µg/mL] for wild-type FIV clinical isolate) for at least 12 hours after IV, IG, or PO administration. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:835–840)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research