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SUMMARY

The objectives of this experiment were to determine serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and free thyroxine (fT4) at rest, following thyroid-stimulating hormone (tsh) administration, and following phenylbutazone administration in healthy horses. This was done to determine which available laboratory test can best be used for diagnosis of hypothyroid conditions in horses. Serum T3, T4, and fT4 concentrations in serum samples obtained before and after tsh stimulation and following phenylbutazone administration for 7 days were determined.

Baseline values ranged from 0.21 to 0.80 ng of T3/ml, 6.2 to 25.1 ng of T4/ml, and 0.07 to 0.47 ng of fT3/dl. After 5 IU of tsh was administered IV, serum T3 values increased to 6 times baseline values in 2 hours. Thyroxine values increased to 3 times baseline values at 4 hours and remained high at 6 hours. Free T4 values increased to 4 times baseline values at 4 hours and remained high at 6 hours. Administration of 4.4 mg of phenylbutazone/kg, every 12 hours for 7 days significantly decreased T4 and fT4 values, but did not significantly affect serum T3 concentrations. It was concluded that a tsh stimulation test should be performed when hypothyroidism is suspected. Measurement of serum fT4 concentrations, by the single-stage radioimmunoassay, does not provide any additional information about thyroid gland function over that gained by measuring T4 concentrations. Phenylbutazone given at a dosage of 4.4 mg/kg every 24 hours, for 7 days did significantly decrease resting T4 and fT4 concentrations, but did not significantly affect T3 concentrations in horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effects of dexmedetomidine, doxapram, and dexmedetomidine plus doxapram on ventilation ( e), breath frequency, and tidal volume (Vt) in ball pythons (Python regius) and of doxapram on the thermal antinociceptive efficacy of dexmedetomidine.

ANIMALS

14 ball pythons.

PROCEDURES

Respiratory effects of dexmedetomidine and doxapram were assessed with whole-body, closed-chamber plethysmography, which allowed for estimates of e and Vt. In the first experiment of this study with a complete crossover design, snakes were injected, SC, with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, dexmedetomidine (0.1 mg/kg), doxapram (10 mg/kg), or dexmedetomidine and doxapram, and breath frequency, e, and Vt were measured before and every 30 minutes thereafter, through 240 minutes. In the second experiment, antinociceptive efficacy of saline solution, dexmedetomidine, and dexmedetomidine plus doxapram was assessed by measuring thermal withdrawal latencies before and 60 minutes after SC injection.

RESULTS

Dexmedetomidine significantly decreased breath frequency and increased Vt but did not affect e at all time points, compared with baseline. Doxapram significantly increased e, breath frequency, and Vt at 60 minutes after injection, compared with saline solution. The combination of dexmedetomidine and doxapram, compared with dexmedetomidine alone, significantly increased e at 30 and 60 minutes after injection and did not affect breath frequency and Vt at all time points. Thermal withdrawal latencies significantly increased when snakes received dexmedetomidine or dexmedetomidine plus doxapram, versus saline solution.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Concurrent administration of doxapram may mitigate the dexmedetomidine-induced reduction of breathing frequency without disrupting thermal antinociceptive efficacy in ball pythons.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 17-week-old spayed female Sphinx was evaluated after a 3-day history of inappetence, lethargy, and vomiting. Three weeks prior, the kitten had undergone routine elective ovariohysterectomy.

Clinical Findings—Abdominal ultrasonography revealed moderate hydronephrosis of the left kidney, and the left ureter was tortuous and dilated from the kidney to the level of the midureter, where it abruptly tapered. No discrete cause of obstruction could be identified. Clinicopathologic analyses revealed that the kitten was nonazotemic.

Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory laparotomy revealed that the distal portion of the left ureter was irregular with ill-defined margins and abundant scar tissue, likely secondary to iatrogenic ureteral ligation during the ovariohysterectomy (suture was not observed). Intraoperative antegrade pyelography confirmed complete left ureteral obstruction extending distally from the level of the midureter. A subcutaneous ureteral bypass device was placed to allow for renal decompression. No complications were encountered in the perioperative period, and the kitten recovered well after anesthesia. The kitten was discharged from the hospital 7 days after initial evaluation and continued to do well after surgery. At long-term follow-up, abdominal ultrasonography confirmed resolution of hydronephrosis and ureteral dilation.

Clinical Relevance—A subcutaneous ureteral bypass device successfully allowed renal decompression in a kitten with iatrogenic ureteral ligation. A subcutaneous ureteral bypass device may be an alternative to historical surgical options in cases of unilateral ureteral obstruction and may result in a good long-term outcome.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the duration of dark-adaptation time required for recovery of electroretinographic responses after fundus photography or indirect ophthalmoscopy in dogs.

Animals—6 dogs.

Procedure—Initially, scotopic-intensity series of electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded after 20 minutes of dark adaptation. The fundus of the left eye of each dog was photographed (n = 10) or examined via indirect ophthalmoscopy for 5 minutes with moderate- (117 candela [cd]/m2) or bright-intensity (1,693 cd/m2) light; ERGs were repeated after a further 20 or 60 minutes of dark adaptation (6 procedures/dog).

Results—Following 20 minutes of dark adaptation after fundus photography, the b- and a-wave amplitudes were reduced in response to brighter stimuli, compared with pretest ERGs; after 60 minutes of dark adaptation, ERG amplitudes had recovered. Following 20 minutes of dark adaptation after indirect ophthalmoscopy (moderate-intensity light), significantly lower b-wave amplitudes were recorded in response to 2 of the brighter flash stimuli, compared with pretest ERGs; after 60 minutes of dark adaptation, ERG amplitudes had recovered. Following 20 minutes of dark adaptation after indirect ophthalmoscopy (bright-intensity light), all ERG amplitudes were significantly decreased and implicit times were significantly decreased at several flash intensities, compared with pretest ERGs; after 60 minutes of dark adaptation, ERG amplitudes and implicit times had returned to initial values, except for b-wave amplitudes recorded in response to dimmer stimuli.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that at least 60 minutes of dark adaptation should be allowed before ERGs are performed in dogs after fundus photography or indirect ophthalmoscopy. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1798–1804)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To estimate Brucella canis seropositivity rates for purebred dogs being bred by noncommercial breeders, describe epidemiological findings in infected commercial dog-production facilities, and characterize B canis infection in pet dogs and the risk to human health.

DESIGN Retrospective descriptive study.

SAMPLE 2,799 canine specimens submitted to the Michigan State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for B canis testing and records of B canis reports provided to the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development from 2007 through 2016.

PROCEDURES Results of B canis laboratory tests and epidemiological findings for reported cases of B canis were reviewed and summarized. Federal and state public health officials were interviewed regarding human B canis infection. State veterinarians were interviewed regarding canine brucellosis reporting and control procedures.

RESULTS Estimated B canis seropositivity was 0.4% among purebred Michigan dogs owned by noncommercial breeders. Infection was confirmed in dogs from 17 commercial dog-production facilities, 3 shelters, and 1 rescue agency. Estimated infection prevalence in production facilities ranged from 2 of 22 (9%) to 5 of 6 (83%). Transfer of infected dogs involved 22 Michigan counties and 11 states. Seven of 20 privately owned infected dogs had diskospondylitis; I also had uveitis. Fifty-three veterinary hospital or diagnostic laboratory personnel had inadvertent exposure to the pathogen. Brucella canis was isolated from 1 commercial production facility owner.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE B canis was uncommon in purebred dogs being bred by noncommercial breeders but endemic in Michigan commercial facilities producing dogs destined to become household pets. Infected pet dogs caused human B canis exposure, and several pet dogs had debilitating disease not associated with the reproductive system.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine effect of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on rate and degree of return to function of the limb and development of degenerative joint disease (DJD) after surgical creation and subsequent stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifle.

Animals

12 clinically normal adult large (19.5 to 31.5 kg) dogs.

Procedure

Dogs were anesthetized, and the right CrCL was severed via arthrotomy, destabilizing the stifle. After 3 weeks, the stifle was surgically stabilized. Three weeks later, 6 dogs were subjected to an EMS treatment protocol for the thigh muscles. At 5, 9, 13, and 19 weeks after stifle destabilization, treated (n = 6) and control (n = 6) dogs were evaluated for return of stifle function. Gross and histologic evaluations of the stifles were performed at 19 weeks after stifle destabilization.

Results

Treated dogs had significantly (P = 0.001) better lameness score than did control dogs. There was less palpable crepitation of the stifle in treated dogs (P = 0.06); treated dogs also had significantly (P = 0.01) fewer radiographic signs of bone changes. Thigh circumference was significantly (P = 0.02) larger in treated dogs.There was less gross cartilage damage (P = 0.07) in the EMS-treated dogs, but more medial meniscal damage (P = 0.058, cranial pole; P = 0.051, caudal pole).

Conclusions

Improved lameness scores, larger thigh circumference, and decreased radiographically apparent bony changes observed for the treated group of dogs support the hypothesis that dogs treated by EMS after surgical stabilization of the CrCL-deficient stifle had improved limb function, with less DJD, than did dogs treated with the currently accepted clinical protocol of cage rest and slow return to normal activity. However, results of force plate evaluation did not support the hypothesis. Increased meniscal damage in dogs treated by EMS may be cause for concern. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1473–1478)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the contribution of gyrA mutation and efflux pumps to fluoroquinolone resistance and multidrug resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from dogs and cats.

Sample Population—536 clinical isolates of E coli.

Procedures—Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for enrofloxacin and 6 other drug classes by use of broth microdilution techniques. Real-time PCR assay was used to determine the mutation in gyrA; Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide, an efflux pump inhibitor, was used to examine the contribution of efflux pump overexpression.

Results—The MIC for fluoroquinolones increased in a stepwise fashion and was lowest in the absence of mutations, higher with a single point mutation, and highest with 2 point mutations. Level of resistance in the latter category was high (8 times the breakpoint), but this was associated with expression of the AcrAB efflux pump. Inhibition of the efflux pump resulted in a reduction in the MIC to less than the susceptible breakpoint for isolates with an MIC ≤ 4 mg/L, regardless of the presence of a mutation. The greatest magnitude in MIC decrease (MIC was decreased by a factor of > 67 fold) was for isolates with a single mutation but the greatest absolute decrease in MIC (124 mg/L) was for isolates with 2 mutations. Inhibition of the AcrAB efflux pump in isolates characterized by multidrug resistance decreased the MIC of drugs structurally unrelated to fluoroquinolone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Fluoroquinolone resistance in E coli appeared to be a stepwise phenomenon, with MIC increasing as the number of point mutations in gyrA increased, but high-level resistance and multidrug resistance associated with fluoroquinolone resistance reflected overexpression of the AcrAB efflux pump.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare accuracy of estimates of cystolith size obtained by means of plain radiography, double-contrast cystography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography.

Sample Population—30 canine cystoliths ranging from 1 to 11 mm in diameter with various mineral compositions.

Procedures—A bladder phantom model was created by filling a rubber balloon with saline (1% NaCl) solution and positioning it on top of a 2% gelatin cushion at the bottom of a water-filled 4-quart container. Cystoliths were individually placed in the bladder phantom and imaged by each of the 4 techniques. For each image, cystolith size was measured by 2 radiologists with computerized calipers, and size estimates were compared with actual cystolith size.

Results—Mean cystolith size estimates obtained by means of radiography, cystography, and computed tomography did not differ significantly from each other. However, for ultrasonographic images, mean ± SD difference between actual and estimated cystolith size (2.95 ± 0.73 mm) was significantly higher than mean difference for radiographic, cystographic, and computed tomographic images. For ultrasonography, mean ± SD percentage overestimation in cystolith size was 68.4 ± 51.5%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that measurements of cystolith size obtained by means of ultrasonography may overestimate the true size. This suggests that cystolith size estimates obtained by means of ultrasonography should be interpreted with caution whenever cystolith size may influence patient management.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research