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  • Author or Editor: Lysimachos G. Papazoglou x
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Objective—To evaluate signalment, clinical findings, surgical treatment, and long-term outcomes in puppies and kittens after surgical repair of various types of atresia ani (AA) with or without concomitant anogenital or rectogenital malformations.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—11 puppies and 1 kitten.

Procedures—Medical records of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed for puppies and kittens that underwent surgical treatment for AA. Information regarding signalment, diagnosis, surgical procedures, follow-up time, and outcome was recorded. A previously described classification scheme was used to classify AA as type I, II, III, or IV. Follow-up times and outcomes were evaluated.

Results—AA was classified as type I in 3 animals, type II in 6, and type III in 3. Nine of 12 patients had anogenital or rectogenital malformations; 8 of these had rectovaginal fistulas. Eleven animals underwent in situ anoplasty, and 1 underwent surgery in which the rectovaginal fistula was used for anal reconstruction. Six also underwent balloon dilation for treatment of anal stenosis, and revision anoplasty was performed in 5. All patients with type I or II AA survived ≥ 1 year. Two puppies with type III AA were euthanized 3 and 40 days after surgery. Follow-up time for the remaining 10 patients ranged from 12 to 92 months, and 3 had fecal incontinence.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Surgical repair of type I or II AA resulted in long-term survival and fecal continence in most cases. Although numbers were small, patients with type III AA had poorer outcomes than did those with type I or II AA.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine whether differences existed in the viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid samples from the metacarpophalangeal, intercarpal, and distal interphalangeal joints of orthopedically normal athletic horses.


45 warmblood horses and 30 Thoroughbreds (age range, 4 to 16 years).


Synovial fluid samples were aseptically obtained via arthrocentesis from 1 metacarpophalangeal, intercarpal, and distal interphalangeal joint of each horse, and nucleated cell counts were performed. A commercial ELISA was used to measure sample hyaluronic acid concentrations, and full rheological characterization of samples was performed to measure the elastic or storage modulus G' and viscous or loss modulus G“ at 37.5°C (representing the body temperature of horses). Findings were compared among joints and between breed groups by means of ANOVA.


Significant differences in synovial fluid G' and G“ values were identified between Thoroughbreds and warmblood horses for the metacarpophalangeal joint, between the metacarpophalangeal and intercarpal joints of Thoroughbreds, and between the metacarpophalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints and intercarpal and distal interphalangeal joints of warmblood horses. No significant differences were identified between breed groups or among joints in synovial fluid hyaluronic concentrations or nucleated cell counts.


Viscoelastic properties of the forelimb joints of orthopedically normal Thoroughbreds and warmblood horses differed within and between these 2 groups, mainly as a function of the evaluated joint. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first study of its kind, and additional research is warranted to better understand the viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid in horses to optimize their locomotive function.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research