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  • Author or Editor: Lynn M. Walker x
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Objective

To characterize respiratory function and treatment in dogs with findings compatible with those of human adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and to evaluate the application in dogs of clinical criteria for diagnosis of ARDS.

Design

Retrospective review of medical records.

Animals

19 dogs with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Results

Arterial blood pH was 7.30 ± 0.059 (mean ± SD). Nine dogs had metabolic acidosis. In nonmechanically ventilated dogs, Paco2 was 15.0 to 54.9 mm of Hg. Respiratory acidosis developed in 2 mechanically ventilated dogs. Hypoxemia was observed in 4 of 5 dogs breathing room air. In 4 mechanically ventilated dogs, oxygenation was inadequate, despite use of > 60% inspired O2 and positive end-expiratory pressure in 3 dogs. Alveolar-to-arterial oxygen tension gradients were widened in 4 dogs breathing room air and in 6 dogs ventilated with 100% O2.

Ten dogs were mechanically ventilated; ventilatory rate was 18 to 60 breaths/min. Tidal volume was 12 ± 3.8 ml/kg of body weight in 4 dogs, minute ventilation > 400 ml/kg/min in 2 dogs, and peak airway pressures > 25 cm of H2O in 6 dogs. Positive end-expiratory pressure was used in 8 dogs. Pneumothorax was detected in 5 ventilated dogs.

Human clinical criteria for diagnosis of ARDS were fulfilled in 7 dogs. Fluid treatment consisted of IV crystalloids and synthetic colloids. Drugs most often administered were antibiotics and loop diuretics.

Clinical Implications

Human clinical criteria for identification of ARDS may be helpful in diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1428-1433)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To describe clinical and clinicopathologic findings from dogs with histologic pulmonary lesions consistent with human adult respiratory distress syndrome and to identify potential risk factors.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

19 dogs with acute respiratory distress.

Procedure

Medical records of dogs were reviewed. Signalment, physical examination and clinicopathologic findings at admission, and thoracic radiographic and necropsy findings were recorded.

Results

The most common clinical sign was dyspnea. Respiratory rate ranged from 36 to 140 breaths/min, and abnormal breathing patterns were detected. Crackles were auscultated in 7 dogs. Severe diffuse interstitial and alveolar infiltrates were observed on thoracic radiography in 9 dogs shortly after arrival and developed later in 4 dogs. Four dogs were leukopenic and neutropenic. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was diagnosed in 2 dogs, and hypoalbuminemia was found in 8 dogs. Respiratory status deteriorated rapidly in all dogs, and 10 dogs were mechanically ventilated. Death was attributed solely to respiratory failure in 8 dogs. In the other 11 dogs, severe lesions in nonpulmonary organs, sepsis, or both may have contributed to death. The most common associated conditions that may have contributed to acute respiratory failure were microbial pneumonia, sepsis, aspiration pneumonia, and shock, with more than 1 factor found in 11 of 19 dogs.

Clinical Implications

The index of suspicion for acute respiratory distress syndrome should be high in dogs with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and acute respiratory distress that rapidly progresses to failure. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1419-1427)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To review clinical findings and clinical course for cats exposed to smoke in residential fires and to determine clinical variables that may have prognostic importance.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

22 cats admitted to our veterinary teaching hospital between 1986 and 1997 with a history of smoke exposure during a residential fire.

Procedure

Medical records were reviewed for history, clinical signs, physical examination findings, changes in respiratory tract signs, initial hematologic analysis, treatment, results of thoracic radiography, and outcome.

Results

Fifteen of 22 (68%) cats were categorized in the uncomplicated group, 5 (23%) in the complicated group, and 2 (9%) were discharged after a short period because of financial considerations. Twenty (91%) cats survived, but 2 (9%) were euthanatized because of severe respiratory compromise or neurologic changes. Predominant thoracic radiographic changes were diffuse interstitial pattern (6 cats) and focal alveolar pattern (5). The majority (8/13) of cats that were stable or had improved by the day after admission had an uncomplicated clinical course while hospitalized, whereas cats that were worse on the day after admission tended to have a complicated clinical course.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Cats that survive a residential fire and are admitted to a hospital have a good chance to be discharged. Cats that do not have signs of respiratory tract dysfunction at admission probably will not develop severe respiratory complications. For cats with signs of respiratory dysfunction at admission, better prognostic information will be determined by monitoring progression of the respiratory condition on the day after admission. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1312–1316)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To characterize imaging findings in cats with confirmed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of the upper gastrointestinal tract (ie, stomach and small intestine) and relate these findings to clinical signs and histologic changes.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

33 cats with clinical and histopathologic diagnoses of IBD.

Procedure

Medical records were reviewed for signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathologic findings, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings, and results of endoscopic examination. Histologic findings were reviewed and characterized by severity and type of inflammatory infiltrate.

Results

All cats had 1 or more clinical signs (eg, vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, and anorexia) consistent with IBD. Lymphocytic and plasmacytic infiltrates were observed in histologic sections of gastrointestinal tissue. Crypt distortion, villous blunting and fusion, and fibrosis were most commonly seen in cats with moderate or severe IBD. Clinicopathologic findings of some cats included anemia, leukocytosis or leukopenia, hypocholesterolemia, and hyper- or hypoproteinemia. Abnormalities were not found on abdominal radiographic views in 9 of 9 cats. However, contrast studies using barium revealed radiographic abnormalities in 1 of 3 cats. In 13 of 17 cats, abdominal ultrasonography revealed several intestinal abnormalities (eg, poor intestinal wall layer definition, focal thickening) and large mesenteric lymph nodes with hypoechoic changes consistent with IBD. Endoscopic observation revealed findings (eg, erythema, plaques, mucosal friability) consistent with inflammation in 9 of 18 cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Compared with endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract or abdominal radiography, clinical signs and ultrasonographic findings appear to have the best association with histologic grade of IBD in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:349–354)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate clinical findings, prognostic variables, and clinical course of dogs exposed to smoke.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

27 dogs exposed to smoke in residential fires.

Procedure

Medical records were reviewed for 1988–1997. Time of year, signalment, interval from fire to arrival at veterinary hospital, duration of smoke exposure, clinical signs at the fire scene, physical examination findings, changes in respiratory tract signs, radiographic findings, hematologic and arterial blood gas analyses, initial treatment, clinical course, and outcome were recorded.

Results

27 dogs (16 uncomplicated and 11 complicated cases) were identified. In the complicated group, 4 dogs died, 4 were euthanatized, and 3 had a complicated clinical course. Stupor or coma (8 of 17 dogs), coughing or gagging (6), and respiratory difficulty (6) were commonly observed at the fire scene. Substantial improvement was evident within 5 to 30 minutes after dogs were given supplemental oxygen at the fire scene. More severely affected dogs had a higher median PCV (58%) than less severely affected dogs (50%). Most common thoracic radiographic findings were an alveolar (10 dogs) or an interstitial (3) pattern.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Dogs exposed to smoke can develop respiratory or neurologic complications. Monitoring progression of respiratory problems on the day after the fire may provide clinicians with clues about the severity of each dog's condition. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1306–1311)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association