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  • Author or Editor: Lynn M. Pezzanite x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the efficacy and duration of action for perineural analgesia with liposomal bupivacaine (LB) versus bupivacaine hydrochloride (BHCl) in a sole-pressure induced model of forelimb lameness in horses.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult research horses.

PROCEDURES

In 1 randomly assigned forelimb, grade 3/5 lameness was induced by use of a sole-pressure lameness model. Objective lameness (vector sum [VS]) was determined with an inertial sensor system at 0, 1, 6, and 24 hours after lameness induction to evaluate the model. Mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) and objective lameness (VS and force platform kinetics) were recorded prior to and at 1, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after perineural anesthesia of the palmar nerves at the level of the proximal sesamoid bones with LB or BHCl in random order, with a 1-week washout period between crossover treatments. Data analysis was performed with mixed-model ANOVA.

RESULTS

When evaluating the lameness model, there was a decrease in lameness at 24 hours in at least 1 limb of each horse (7/12 limbs); thus, screw length was increased by 1 to 2 mm at each 24-hour interval to maintain lameness. Compared with results at baseline, horses treated with BHCl had significant improvements in median MNT and VS identified at only 1 hour after injection, whereas treatment with LB yielded significantly improved median MNT, VS score, and peak vertical force for up to 24 hours.

DISCUSSION

In this experimental model of forelimb lameness, LB provided longer analgesia when compared with BHCl and should be further investigated for treatment of pain in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate mechanistically the reported beneficial effects of immune-activated mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy to treat equine septic arthritis, leveraging Nanostring technology.

ANIMALS

8 Quarter Horses with induced tibiotarsal Staphylococcus aureus septic arthritis treated IA with either Toll-like receptor-3 agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid–activated MSCs + vancomycin antimicrobials (TLR-MSC-VAN; n = 4) or antimicrobials (VAN; 4).

METHODS

Synovial tissues were collected and fixed in neutral-buffered 10% formalin, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded synovial and osteochondral tissues were sequenced using a custom-designed 200-gene equine Nanostring nCounter immune panel to directly quantify expression of key immune and cartilage-related genes. Immunohistochemistry to detect CD3+ T cells was performed on synovial tissues to further quantify T-cell infiltration in TLR-MSC-VAN– versus VAN-treated joints.

RESULTS

Comparison of synovial transcriptomes between groups revealed moderate changes in differential gene expression, with upregulated expression of 9 genes and downregulated expression of 17 genes with fold change ≥ 2 or ≤ −2 and a significant false discovery rate–adjusted P value of ≤ .05. The most upregulated genes in TLR-MSC-VAN–treated horses included those related to T-lymphocyte recruitment and function, while pathways related to innate immune activation and inflammation were significantly downregulated. Immunohistochemistry and quantitation of CD3+ T-cell infiltrates revealed a numerically greater infiltrate in synovial tissues of TLR-MSC-VAN–treated horses, which did not reach statistical significance in this small sample set (P = .20).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Targeted transcriptomic analyses using an equine Nanostring immune and cartilage health panel provided new mechanistic insights into how innate and adaptive immune cells within synovial tissues respond to TLR-activated MSC treatment when used to treat septic arthritis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association