Objective—To identify environmental risk factors for
Animals—36 dogs with leptospirosis and 138 dogs
seronegative for leptospirosis as determined by
microscopic agglutination test for antibodies against
Procedure—Medical records of dogs evaluated for
leptospirosis from 1997 though 2002 were identified.
Owner address was used to geocode locations of
dogs, and location-specific environmental risk factor
data were obtained by use of a geographic information
system. Risk of leptospirosis was estimated by
odds ratios, controlling for potential confounding by
dog age, sex, and breed.
Results—Leptospirosis in 19 of the 30 dogs in which
an infecting Leptospira serovar could be identified
was associated with Leptospira kirschneri serovar
grippotyphosa infection. Dogs in which a diagnosis of
leptospirosis was made, and dogs with leptospirosis
caused by L kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa, were
more likely to have addresses located in areas classified
as rural in 1990 but urban in 2000. By use of information
on recent urbanization and a logistic regression
model, the status of 81.6% and 89.8% of dogs
with leptospirosis and leptospirosis caused by serovar
grippotyphosa, respectively, were correctly classified.
Other environmental variables (proximity to streams,
recreational areas, farmland, wetlands, areas subject
to flooding, and areas with poor drainage; annual rainfall;
and county cattle or pig population) did not significantly
improve accuracy of classification.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs in periurban
areas are at greater risk of leptospirosis.
Vaccination of dogs in these areas to protect against
leptospirosis should be considered. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To determine whether there was a temporal
trend in prevalence of leptospirosis among dogs
in the United States and Canada and to determine
whether age, sex, and breed were risk factors for the
Animals—1,819,792 dogs examined at 22 veterinary
teaching hospitals between 1970 and 1998.
Procedures—The Veterinary Medical Data Base was
searched for records of dogs in which a diagnosis of
leptospirosis was made, and hospital prevalence was
calculated. Logistic regression was used to examine
the association between leptospirosis and age, sex,
Results—677 dogs with leptospirosis were identified.
Thus, hospital prevalence was 37 cases/100,000
dogs examined. A significant increase in leptospirosis
prevalence between 1983 and 1998 was identified.
Male dogs were at significantly greater risk of leptospirosis
than were female dogs; dogs between 4
and 6.9 years old and between 7 and 10 years old
were at significantly greater risk than dogs < 1 year
old; and herding dogs, hounds, working dogs, and
mixed-breed dogs were at significantly greater risk
than companion dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The prevalence
of leptospirosis among dogs examined at veterinary
teaching hospitals in the United States and
Canada has increased significantly since 1983. Male
dogs of working and herding breeds were at greater
risk. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:53–58)
Objective—To evaluate the effect of multiple hydrogen peroxide gas plasma (HPGP) sterilizations on the rate of closure of ameroid constrictors.
Sample—Thirty-six 5.0-mm ameroid constrictors.
Procedures—Ameroid constrictors were randomly allocated to 6 groups. Each group underwent 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 HPGP sterilizations. Ameroid constrictors were then incubated for 35 days in canine plasma and digitally imaged at predetermined times during incubation. One individual, who was unaware of the group to which each ameroid constrictor was assigned, measured the lumen area of the constrictor on each digital image. Mean lumen area was compared among groups.
Results—No ameroid constrictors were completely closed after 35 days of incubation in canine plasma. Mean lumen area after incubation did not differ among constrictors that underwent 1, 2, and 3 sterilizations. Constrictors that underwent 4 sterilizations were closed significantly more than were those that underwent 1, 2, or 3 sterilizations. Mean lumen area after incubation did not differ significantly between constrictors that underwent 5 and 6 sterilizations, although the final lumen areas for those constrictors were significantly smaller than those for constrictors that underwent 1, 2, 3, and 4 sterilizations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ameroid constrictors that underwent 5 and 6 HPGP sterilizations had a 9% to 12% decrease in lumen area, compared with that of constrictors that underwent ≤ 4 plasma sterilizations, and the use of such constrictors could increase the risk of portal hypertension and secondary acquired shunting or decrease the risk of persistent shunting.
Objective—To develop a reverse transcriptase-polymerase
chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay to detect feline
herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) latency-associated transcripts
(LATs) in the corneas and trigeminal ganglia of cats
that did not have clinical signs of ocular disease.
Sample Population—Corneas and trigeminal ganglia
obtained from 21 cats necropsied at the Indiana
Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and 25 cats
euthanatized at a humane shelter; none of the cats
had a recent history of respiratory tract or ocular disease,
and all had normal results for ophthalmic examinations.
Procedure—Both corneas and both trigeminal ganglia
were harvested from each cat. An initial PCR assay
detected FHV-1 DNA in the corneas and trigeminal
ganglia. The RNA was then isolated from samples
positive for FHV-1 DNA, and an RT-PCR assay was
used to detect LATs.
Results—FHV-1 DNA was detected in 45 of 92
(48.9%) corneas and 38 of 92 (41.3%) trigeminal ganglia.
In many samples, the RNA had degraded and RTPCR
assay was not possible. Of the samples subjected
to RT-PCR assay, none of the 39 corneas but 4 of
16 trigeminal ganglia had positive results when tested
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of
the results indicated that a high percentage of cats
that did not have clinical signs of ocular disease had
detectable FHV-1 DNA in their corneas and trigeminal
ganglia. This study documents that the RT-PCR assay
can successfully identify LATs and may serve as a
tool to better understand the biologic characteristics
of FHV-1 and its relationship to clinical disease. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:314–319)
Objective—To use results of microscopic agglutination tests (MATs) conducted at a commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratory to determine temporal and demographic distributions of positive serologic test results for leptospirosis in dogs and identify correlations among results for various Leptospira serovars.
Study Population—MAT results for 33,119 canine serum samples submitted to a commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratory from 2000 through 2007.
Procedures—Electronic records of MAT results for dogs were obtained from a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Seropositivity for antibodies against Leptospira serovars was determined by use of a cutoff titer of ≥ 1:1,600 to reduce the possible impact of postvaccinal antibodies on results. Correlations between results for all possible pairs of serovars were calculated by ordinal ranking of positive (≥ 1:100) antibody titer results.
Results—2,680 samples (8.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.8% to 8.4%) were seropositive for antibodies against Leptospira serovars. The highest percentage of positive MAT results was for the year 2007 (10.2%; 95% CI, 9.5% to 10.9%) and for the months of November and December during the study period. Antibodies were most common against serovars Autumnalis, Grippotyphosa, Pomona, and Bratislava. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis was lowest for dogs > 10 years of age but was similar across other age strata.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Leptospirosis can affect dogs of small and large breeds and various ages. Although an increase in proportions of positive MAT results was evident in the fall, monthly and annual variations suggested potential exposure in all months. Because of the limitations of MAT results and the limited number of serovars used in the test, bacterial culture should be used to identify infective Leptospira serovars.
Objective—To estimate serovar-specific prevalence
of leptospirosis by use of veterinary teaching hospital
and laboratory submission data; describe annual and
seasonal patterns of leptospirosis; and identify risk
factors for age, sex, and breed.
Animals—90 dogs with leptospirosis.
Procedures—Hospital records of dogs examined at
Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a
diagnosis of leptospirosis and laboratory records of
dogs from which sera were tested for antibodies
against Leptospira spp at Purdue University Animal
Disease Diagnostic Laboratory from 1997 through 2002
were reviewed. The likely infecting Leptospira serovar
was identified. Seasonal and annual prevalences were
calculated by use of hospital population at risk (hospital
cases) or serologic testing submissions (diagnostic laboratory
cases). Age-, sex-, and breed-specific risk factors
for hospital cases were estimated by odds ratios.
Results—Of the 39 hospitalized dogs identified, 34
had been serologically tested, and 22 of those were
infected with Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa.
Of the 51 diagnostic laboratory cases, 59%
had a reciprocal titer ≥ 800 against serovar grippotyphosa.
Diagnostic laboratory cases were more common
in summer, whereas hospital cases of leptospirosis
were more common in fall. Male dogs were
at significantly greater risk of leptospirosis than
female dogs; and dogs 4 to 6.9 years old were at significantly
greater risk than dogs < 1 year old.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—L kirschneri
serovar grippotyphosa infection was associated with
most cases of leptospirosis in dogs. Use of an effective
vaccine that includes this serovar is advisable for
dogs at risk of leptospirosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1958–1963)
Objective—To determine whether infection with or exposure to Bartonella spp was associated with idiopathic rhinitis in dogs.
Animals—44 dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge and 63 age- and weight-matched control dogs without nasal discharge and no clinical signs of bartonellosis.
Procedures—Serum was tested for antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii with indirect fluorescent antibody assays. Blood was tested for Bartonella DNA with a PCR assay.
Results—Results of the antibody and PCR assays were negative for all 44 dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge. One control dog had antibodies against B henselae; a second control dog had positive PCR assay results. We did not detect a significant association between assay results and group designation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The present study failed to confirm an association between idiopathic rhinitis and exposure to or infection with Bartonella spp in dogs. Findings do not rule out the possibility that Bartonella infection may cause nasal discharge in some dogs, but the failure to find any evidence of exposure to or infection with Bartonella spp in dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge suggested that Bartonella infection was not a common cause of the disease.
Objective—To determine the incidence of vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAEs) diagnosed within 30 days of vaccination in cats and characterize risk factors for their occurrence.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—496,189 cats vaccinated at 329 hospitals.
Procedures—Electronic records were searched for VAAEs that occurred after vaccine administration classified by practitioners as nonspecific vaccine reaction, allergic reaction, urticaria, shock, or anaphylaxis. Clinical signs and treatments were reviewed. The association between potential risk factors and a VAAE occurrence was estimated via multivariate logistic regression.
Results—2,560 VAAEs were associated with administration of 1,258,712 doses of vaccine to 496,189 cats (51.6 VAAEs/10,000 cats vaccinated). The risk of a VAAE significantly increased as the number of vaccines administered per office visit increased. Risk was greatest for cats approximately 1 year old; overall risk was greater for neutered versus sexually intact cats. Lethargy with or without fever was the most commonly diagnosed VAAE. No localized reactions recorded in the 30-day period were subsequently diagnosed as neoplasia when followed for 1 to 2 years.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although overall VAAE rates were low, young adult neutered cats that received multiple vaccines per office visit were at the greatest risk of a VAAE within 30 days after vaccination. Veterinarians should incorporate these findings into risk communications and limit the number of vaccinations administered concurrently to cats.