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  • Author or Editor: Lynn F. Guptill x
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Abstract

Objective—To identify environmental risk factors for leptospirosis.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—36 dogs with leptospirosis and 138 dogs seronegative for leptospirosis as determined by microscopic agglutination test for antibodies against Leptospira spp.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs evaluated for leptospirosis from 1997 though 2002 were identified. Owner address was used to geocode locations of dogs, and location-specific environmental risk factor data were obtained by use of a geographic information system. Risk of leptospirosis was estimated by odds ratios, controlling for potential confounding by dog age, sex, and breed.

Results—Leptospirosis in 19 of the 30 dogs in which an infecting Leptospira serovar could be identified was associated with Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa infection. Dogs in which a diagnosis of leptospirosis was made, and dogs with leptospirosis caused by L kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa, were more likely to have addresses located in areas classified as rural in 1990 but urban in 2000. By use of information on recent urbanization and a logistic regression model, the status of 81.6% and 89.8% of dogs with leptospirosis and leptospirosis caused by serovar grippotyphosa, respectively, were correctly classified. Other environmental variables (proximity to streams, recreational areas, farmland, wetlands, areas subject to flooding, and areas with poor drainage; annual rainfall; and county cattle or pig population) did not significantly improve accuracy of classification.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs in periurban areas are at greater risk of leptospirosis. Vaccination of dogs in these areas to protect against leptospirosis should be considered. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:72–77)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether there was a temporal trend in prevalence of leptospirosis among dogs in the United States and Canada and to determine whether age, sex, and breed were risk factors for the disease.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—1,819,792 dogs examined at 22 veterinary teaching hospitals between 1970 and 1998.

Procedures—The Veterinary Medical Data Base was searched for records of dogs in which a diagnosis of leptospirosis was made, and hospital prevalence was calculated. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between leptospirosis and age, sex, and breed.

Results—677 dogs with leptospirosis were identified. Thus, hospital prevalence was 37 cases/100,000 dogs examined. A significant increase in leptospirosis prevalence between 1983 and 1998 was identified. Male dogs were at significantly greater risk of leptospirosis than were female dogs; dogs between 4 and 6.9 years old and between 7 and 10 years old were at significantly greater risk than dogs < 1 year old; and herding dogs, hounds, working dogs, and mixed-breed dogs were at significantly greater risk than companion dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The prevalence of leptospirosis among dogs examined at veterinary teaching hospitals in the United States and Canada has increased significantly since 1983. Male dogs of working and herding breeds were at greater risk. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:53–58)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To use results of microscopic agglutination tests (MATs) conducted at a commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratory to determine temporal and demographic distributions of positive serologic test results for leptospirosis in dogs and identify correlations among results for various Leptospira serovars.

Design—Serosurvey.

Study Population—MAT results for 33,119 canine serum samples submitted to a commercial veterinary diagnostic laboratory from 2000 through 2007.

Procedures—Electronic records of MAT results for dogs were obtained from a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Seropositivity for antibodies against Leptospira serovars was determined by use of a cutoff titer of ≥ 1:1,600 to reduce the possible impact of postvaccinal antibodies on results. Correlations between results for all possible pairs of serovars were calculated by ordinal ranking of positive (≥ 1:100) antibody titer results.

Results—2,680 samples (8.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.8% to 8.4%) were seropositive for antibodies against Leptospira serovars. The highest percentage of positive MAT results was for the year 2007 (10.2%; 95% CI, 9.5% to 10.9%) and for the months of November and December during the study period. Antibodies were most common against serovars Autumnalis, Grippotyphosa, Pomona, and Bratislava. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis was lowest for dogs > 10 years of age but was similar across other age strata.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Leptospirosis can affect dogs of small and large breeds and various ages. Although an increase in proportions of positive MAT results was evident in the fall, monthly and annual variations suggested potential exposure in all months. Because of the limitations of MAT results and the limited number of serovars used in the test, bacterial culture should be used to identify infective Leptospira serovars.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To estimate serovar-specific prevalence of leptospirosis by use of veterinary teaching hospital and laboratory submission data; describe annual and seasonal patterns of leptospirosis; and identify risk factors for age, sex, and breed.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—90 dogs with leptospirosis.

Procedures—Hospital records of dogs examined at Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a diagnosis of leptospirosis and laboratory records of dogs from which sera were tested for antibodies against Leptospira spp at Purdue University Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory from 1997 through 2002 were reviewed. The likely infecting Leptospira serovar was identified. Seasonal and annual prevalences were calculated by use of hospital population at risk (hospital cases) or serologic testing submissions (diagnostic laboratory cases). Age-, sex-, and breed-specific risk factors for hospital cases were estimated by odds ratios.

Results—Of the 39 hospitalized dogs identified, 34 had been serologically tested, and 22 of those were infected with Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa. Of the 51 diagnostic laboratory cases, 59% had a reciprocal titer ≥ 800 against serovar grippotyphosa. Diagnostic laboratory cases were more common in summer, whereas hospital cases of leptospirosis were more common in fall. Male dogs were at significantly greater risk of leptospirosis than female dogs; and dogs 4 to 6.9 years old were at significantly greater risk than dogs < 1 year old.

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceL kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa infection was associated with most cases of leptospirosis in dogs. Use of an effective vaccine that includes this serovar is advisable for dogs at risk of leptospirosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1958–1963)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence of vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAEs) diagnosed within 30 days of vaccination in cats and characterize risk factors for their occurrence.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—496,189 cats vaccinated at 329 hospitals.

Procedures—Electronic records were searched for VAAEs that occurred after vaccine administration classified by practitioners as nonspecific vaccine reaction, allergic reaction, urticaria, shock, or anaphylaxis. Clinical signs and treatments were reviewed. The association between potential risk factors and a VAAE occurrence was estimated via multivariate logistic regression.

Results—2,560 VAAEs were associated with administration of 1,258,712 doses of vaccine to 496,189 cats (51.6 VAAEs/10,000 cats vaccinated). The risk of a VAAE significantly increased as the number of vaccines administered per office visit increased. Risk was greatest for cats approximately 1 year old; overall risk was greater for neutered versus sexually intact cats. Lethargy with or without fever was the most commonly diagnosed VAAE. No localized reactions recorded in the 30-day period were subsequently diagnosed as neoplasia when followed for 1 to 2 years.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although overall VAAE rates were low, young adult neutered cats that received multiple vaccines per office visit were at the greatest risk of a VAAE within 30 days after vaccination. Veterinarians should incorporate these findings into risk communications and limit the number of vaccinations administered concurrently to cats.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine incidence rates and potential risk factors for vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAEs) diagnosed within 3 days of administration in dogs.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—1,226,159 dogs vaccinated at 360 veterinary hospitals.

Procedure—Electronic records from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2003, were searched for possible VAAEs (nonspecific vaccine reaction, allergic reaction, urticaria, or anaphylaxis) diagnosed within 3 days of vaccine administration. Information included age, weight, sex, neuter status, and breed. Specific clinical signs and treatments were reviewed in a random sample of 400 affected dogs. The association between potential risk factors and a VAAE was estimated by use of multivariate logistic regression.

Results—4,678 adverse events (38.2/10,000 dogs vaccinated) were associated with administration of 3,439,576 doses of vaccine to 1,226,159 dogs. The VAAE rate decreased significantly as body weight increased. Risk was 27% to 38% greater for neutered versus sexually intact dogs and 35% to 64% greater for dogs approximately 1 to 3 years old versus 2 to 9 months old. The risk of a VAAE significantly increased as the number of vaccine doses administered per office visit increased; each additional vaccine significantly increased risk of an adverse event by 27% in dogs ≤ 10 kg (22 lb) and 12% in dogs > 10 kg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Young adult small-breed neutered dogs that received multiple vaccines per office visit were at greatest risk of a VAAE within 72 hours after vaccination. These factors should be considered in risk assessment and risk communication with clients regarding vaccination. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1102–1108)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association