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  • Author or Editor: Lynette K. Cole x
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Abstract

Objective—To measure impedance audiometric values in clinically normal dogs that were sedated or anesthetized, evaluate effects of ear flushing on tympanometric measurements, and determine effects of performing acoustic reflex testing in a sound-attenuated room.

Animals—35 mixed-breed and purebred clientowned dogs and 21 laboratory-bred Beagles.

Procedures—Tympanometry and acoustic reflex testing were performed on 27 mixed-breed and purebred dogs under isoflurane anesthesia in a non–sound-attenuated room and 21 Beagles under sedation in a sound-attenuated room. Tympanometry was performed on 8 mixed-breed dogs under halothane anesthesia before and after ear canal flushing.

Results—Among impedance audiometric values, ear canal volume and compliance peak were smaller in Beagles than in mixed-breed dogs; differences among other values were not detected. Ear canal volume was dependent on body weight. Differences were not found for tympanometric values measured before and after ear canal flushing.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study established reference range values for impedance audiometric measurements in clinically normal dogs under isoflurane anesthesia or sedation. Acoustic reflex testing does not need to be performed in a sound-attenuated room. The ear canals of clinically normal dogs can be flushed prior to performing tympanometry without altering the results. Impedance audiometry may be a useful noninvasive procedure for the diagnosis of otitis media in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:442–445)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of late-phase reactions to intradermal testing with Dermatophagoides farinae in healthy dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis and an immediate reaction to D farinae.

Animals—6 healthy dogs and 20 dogs with atopic dermatitis and immediate reactions to D farinae.

Procedure—Intradermal tests were performed with D farinae at 1:1,000 wt/vol and 1:50,000 wt/vol concentrations, and skin reactivity was evaluated after 0.25, 6, and 24 hours. Serum D farinae-specific IgE antibodies were assayed. Extent of lesions (atopy index) and pruritus (visual analogue scale) were evaluated in dogs with atopic dermatitis.

Results—Late-phase reactions were observed in healthy dogs at 6 hours (n = 2 dogs) and 24 hours (1) with the 1:1,000 wt/vol concentration, and at 6 hours (1) and 24 hours (1) with the 1:50,000 wt/vol concentration of allergen. Late-phase reactions in healthy dogs were only observed in dogs with an immediate reaction to D farinae. Late-phase reactions were observed in 11 of 20 dogs with atopic dermatitis at 6 and 24 hours with the 1:1,000 wt/vol concentration and in 10 of 20 at 6 and 24 hours with the 1:50,000 wt/vol concentration of allergen. There was no difference in mean atopy index, mean visual analogue scale of pruritus, or mean serum D farinae-specific IgE concentration of dogs with a late-phase reaction, compared to dogs without a late-phase reaction.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Late-phase reactions may be observed after an immediate reaction to intradermal skin testing in healthy and allergic dogs but are more commonly observed in dogs with atopic dermatitis. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:69–73)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the in vitro activity of an ear rinse (ER) containing tromethamine, EDTA, and benzyl alcohol on bacterial pathogens from dogs with otitis.

Sample Population—Organisms were collected from ear swab specimens from the external and middle ear and included Staphylococcus spp (n = 11; Staphylococcus intermedius [7] and Staphylococcus spp [4]), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5), Proteus spp (5), β-hemolytic streptococcus (11), and 1 control strain of each organism.

Procedures—3 test solutions were evaluated including EDTA, tromethamine, and benzyl alcohol (ER); EDTA and tromethamine (ER without benzyl alcohol [ER – BA]); and purified water. Ten-milliliter aliquots of each test solution were transferred into 36 tubes and inoculated with one of the organisms. Samples were retrieved from each tube at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, transferred to Petri dishes, mixed with soybeancasein digest agar, and incubated. After incubation, plates were examined for growth, and the number of colonies was expressed as CFU per milliliter.

Results—ER significantly decreased bacterial growth in vitro of P aeruginosa and β-hemolytic streptococcal organisms within 15 minutes, Proteus spp within 30 minutes, and Staphylococcus spp within 60 minutes. Comparatively, the presence of benzyl alcohol in ER significantly decreased bacterial growth of β-hemolytic streptococcus and Proteus spp.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of results of this study, future studies should be performed to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of ER alone as a treatment for otic infections caused by β-hemolytic streptococcus, P aeruginosa, and Proteus spp and of ER combined with an antimicrobial agent for otic infections caused by Staphylococcus spp.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To quantitate the density of Dermatophagoides farinae and D pteronyssinus and concentrations of house dust mite (HDM) allergens (Der f 1, Der p 1, and Group 2 allergens) in the indoor microenvironment of dogs.

Sample Population—50 homes in Columbus, Ohio.

Procedure—In each home, samples of dust were collected from 3 locations in which dogs spent most time. Whenever possible, the species of mites collected was identified. Mite density (mites/g of dust) was assessed, and allergen concentrations were assayed by standardized ELISAs. Relative humidity and temperature in each home were monitored during a 5-day period. Characteristics of homes and sample sources were evaluated.

Results—Dust samples from all 50 homes contained ≥ 1 HDM allergen; Der f 1 and Der p 1 were detected in 100 and 74% of homes, respectively. Fifteen homes had HDMs; compared with D pteronyssinus, D farinae was found more commonly (14/15 homes) and at a higher density. Basements, homes without central air-conditioning, and dog beds that were ≥ 1 year old had high HDM allergen concentrations. Homes with ≥ 2 µg of Der f 1 or Group 2 allergens/g of dust or ≥ 100 mites/g of dust were significantly more likely to have a maximum relative humidity ≥ 75%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated the presence of HDMs and HDM allergens in the specific microenvironment of dogs in homes. Factors associated with high levels of exposure were identified, which may be associated with increased risk for sensitization and development of atopic diseases. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1580–1588)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To quantitate the density of Dermatophagoides farinae and D pteronyssinus and concentrations of house dust mite (HDM) allergens (Der f 1, Der p 1, and Group 2 allergens) in the indoor microenvironment of dogs.

Sample Population—50 homes in Columbus, Ohio.

Procedures—In each home, samples of dust were collected from 3 locations in which dogs spent most time. Whenever possible, the species of mites collected was identified. Mite density (mites/g of dust) was assessed, and allergen concentrations were assayed by standardized ELISAs. Relative humidity and temperature in each home were monitored during a 5-day period. Characteristics of homes and sample sources were evaluated.

Results—Dust samples from all 50 homes contained ≥ 1 HDM allergen; Der f 1 and Der p 1 were detected in 100 and 74% of homes, respectively. Fifteen homes had HDMs; compared with D pteronyssinus, D farinae was found more commonly (14/15 homes) and at a higher density. Basements, homes without central airconditioning, and dog beds that were ≥ 1 year old had high HDM allergen concentrations. Homes with ≥ 2 µg of Der f 1 or Group 2 allergens/g of dust or ≥ 100 mites/g of dust were significantly more likely to have a maximum relative humidity ≥ 75%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate the presence of HDMs and HDM allergens in the specific microenvironment of dogs in homes. Factors associated with high levels of exposure were identified, which may be associated with increased risk for sensitization and development of atopic diseases. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1301–1309)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the concentration of house dust mite (HDM) allergens, Der f 1 and group 2, on the skin and hair of dogs and whether associations exist between the presence of Der f 1 and group 2 allergens on the skin and hair of dogs and household and dog characteristics.

Animals—63 pet dogs from 50 homes.

Procedure—Dogs were weighed and body surface area in square meters was determined. Skin and hair samples were obtained by vacuuming dogs. Collected dust was analyzed by use of standard ELISA techniques.

Results—HDM allergen was detected in 21 of 59 skin and hair samples. Presence of group 2 allergen on skin and hair of dogs was significantly associated with long hair, compared with short or medium length hair. Median house dust sample concentrations of Der f 1 and group 2 allergens were high in homes with dogs that had skin and hair samples that were positive for Der f 1 and group 2 allergens. Dogs with skin and hair samples that were positive for Der f 1 and group 2 allergens resided in homes with a high number of house dust samples that were positive for Der f 1, group 2, or both allergens and in homes with a mean house dust sample allergen concentration of ≥ 2 µg/g of dust.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Associations exist between environmental HDM allergen concentrations and HDM allergens on the skin and hair samples of dogs. Environmental allergen load is a major factor in accumulation of allergens on the skin and hair of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:143–149)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether coagulase-positive staphylococcal isolates that are genotypically the same strain obtained from pustules and carriage sites of individual dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis have the same antimicrobial susceptibility phenotype.

Animals—40 dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis.

Procedures—Samples were obtained from 3 pustules and 3 carriage sites (ie, anus, nonlesional axillary skin, and nasal mucosa) for bacterial culture, morphologic identification, Gram staining, catalase and coagulase testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, speciation, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).

Results—223 isolates from pustules and carriage sites were included. Seventeen susceptibility phenotypes were found among isolates. One hundred twenty-eight (100%) isolates from pustules and 95 (100%) isolates from carriage sites were susceptible to cephalothin; 128 (100%) isolates from pustules and 94 (98.9%) isolates from carriage sites were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; 114 (89.1%) isolates from pustules and 82 (86.3%) isolates from carriage sites were susceptible to erythromycin and lincomycin hydrochloride; and 103 (80.5%) isolates from pustules and 70 (73.7%) isolates from carriage sites were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In 37 of 39 (94.9%) dogs, isolates with the same PFGE pattern from multiple pustules had the same susceptibility phenotype. In 21 of 33 (63.6%) dogs, isolates from multiple carriage sites with the same PFGE pattern had the same susceptibility phenotype.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis, most coagulase-positive staphylococcal isolates from pustules that are genotypically the same strain will have the same susceptibility phenotype and treatment may be based on empiric antimicrobial selection or susceptibility testing of 1 lesional isolate.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether staphylococcal isolates cultured from pustules and carriage sites in dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis were genotypically the same strain by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).

Animals—40 dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis.

Procedures—Samples were obtained from 3 pustules and 3 carriage sites (anus, axillary skin, and nasal mucosa). Bacterial culture, morphologic identification, Gram staining, catalase and coagulase tests, speciation, and PFGE were performed.

Results—Of 246 isolates, 203 were Staphylococcus intermedius, 5 were Staphylococcus aureus, 15 were Staphylococcusspp, and 22 were coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates. No dog had an isolate with the same PFGE pattern as an isolate from another dog. Coagulase-positive isolates from multiple pustules and multiple carriage sites had the same PFGE pattern in 37 of 39 (94.9%) and 22 of 39 (56.4%) dogs, respectively. Coagulase-positive staphylococcal isolates from at least 1 pustule had the same PFGE pattern as an isolate from at least 1 carriage site in 34 of 36 (94.4%) dogs. Ninety-seven of 116 (83.6%) coagulase-positive staphylococcal isolates from pustules had the same PFGE pattern as an isolate from at least 1 carriage site. Sixty-nine of 91 (75.8%) coagulase-positive staphylococcal isolates from carriage sites had the same PFGE pattern as an isolate from at least 1 pustule.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Coagulasepositive staphylococcal strains were heterogeneous among dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis. In individual dogs, strains from multiple pustules were genotypically the same, and strains from pustules were genotypically the same as strains from carriage sites.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research