OBJECTIVE To investigate the prevalence and type of laryngeal abnormalities in dogs examined because of cough that did not have signs of upper airway disease and to compare the prevalence of those abnormalities among dogs with various respiratory tract diseases.
DESIGN Prospective study.
ANIMALS 138 dogs with cough that did not have signs of upper airway disease.
PROCEDURES The study was conducted between July 2001 and October 2014 and included dogs examined for cough that had laryngoscopic and bronchoscopic examinations performed by 1 examiner. Laryngeal hyperemia and swelling were recorded, and laryngeal function was assessed before and after doxapram stimulation when indicated. Results were compared among dogs on the basis of cough duration (acute [< 2 weeks], subacute [2 weeks to 2 months], and chronic [> 2 months]) and disease diagnosed (inflammatory airway disease, airway collapse, lower respiratory tract infection, and eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy).
RESULTS Laryngeal hyperemia was detected in 73 of 134 (54%) dogs with cough of subacute or chronic duration, and its prevalence did not vary significantly among dogs with various diseases. Thirteen dogs had laryngeal paresis, and 13 dogs had laryngeal paralysis; dysphonia (n = 2) and stridor (1) were uncommon findings in those dogs. The prevalence of laryngeal dysfunction (paresis or paralysis) did not differ significantly among diseases.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that 26 of 138 (19%) dogs examined because of cough alone had laryngeal dysfunction, which suggested that a complete laryngoscopic examination should be included in the diagnostic evaluation of dogs with cough.
Objective—To evaluate bronchial morphology endoscopically in rabbits and develop a valid nomenclature for the endobronchial branching pattern.
Animals—10 mature New Zealand White rabbits.
Procedures—Flexible bronchoscopy was performed in rabbits anesthetized with isoflurane via nasal mask. Airways were systematically evaluated from the larynx to the terminal branches accessible with a 2.5-mm–outer diameter flexible endoscope. Airway branching patterns were identified and assessed for variation among subjects.
Results—Airways of all rabbits were readily examined with the 2.5-mm flexible endoscope. Laryngeal structure and function were normal in each rabbit, and airway branching patterns in all rabbits evaluated were identical. At the carina, branching into left and right principal bronchi was evident. The left principal bronchus divided immediately into the left cranial and left caudal lobar bronchi. The left cranial lobe bronchus further divided into dorsal and ventral segmental bronchi. The left caudal lobe bronchus gave rise to branches originating dorsally, ventrally, and medially before continuing caudally. The right principal bronchus divided into the right cranial, right middle, and accessory lobar bronchi and continued distally as the right caudal lobar bronchus. The right cranial lobe bronchus also divided into dorsal and ventral segmental bronchi, and the right caudal lobe bronchus had branches that originated dorsally, ventrally, and medially.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Definition of a standard nomenclature for airway branching in rabbits will allow precise localization of disease in clinical cases and accurate collection of airway samples in clinical and scientific evaluations.
Objective—To determine the role of rhinoscopic evaluation and repeated serologic testing in assessing the success rate of intranasally administered clotrimazole for treatment of dogs with nasal aspergillosis.
Design—Prospective case series.
Animals—23 dogs with nasal aspergillosis.
Procedures—Dogs with nasal aspergillosis were treated with an intranasal infusion of 1% clotrimazole solution. Response to treatment was assessed with repeated rhinoscopic evaluation, with histologic examination and fungal culture when available. Results of repeated serologic testing for aspergillosis were monitored throughout the treatment course.
Results—11 of the 23 (48%) dogs had no rhinoscopic evidence of disease after the first treatment. Three of 7 dogs were free of disease after the second treatment, and 1 of 3 dogs was free after the third treatment. Presence or absence of nasal discharge and results of repeated serologic testing were not consistent with disease status. Overall, the efficacy of intranasally administered clotrimazole for treatment of nasal aspergillosis could be confirmed in 15 of 17 dogs. Delayed recurrence or reinfection was confirmed in 3 of 15 dogs. When recurrences were taken into account, the success rate was 67% (12/15 dogs).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clinical signs were not predictive of disease state, and follow-up rhinoscopy is recommended to assess response to treatment. The success rate of intranasally administered clotrimazole was similar to rates in previous reports; however, the number of dogs with recurrent disease was relatively high. Monitoring of the results of serologic testing is not recommended for use in determining response to treatment.
Objective—To investigate the role of bacteria in bronchoscopically
diagnosed tracheal collapse in dogs by
evaluating qualitative results of bacteriologic cultures.
Animals—37 dogs with tracheal collapse.
Procedure—Clinical records for dogs with tracheal
collapse confirmed with bronchoscopy were
reviewed. A protected catheter brush was used to
obtain samples for bacteriologic culture from the
Results—Results of bacterial culture were negative
for 5 of 29 dogs. For 24 dogs, 1 (n = 10), 2 (6), or ≥ 3
(8) species of bacteria were isolated. Pseudomonas
spp were isolated most frequently (17/29), and a single
Pseudomona ssp grew in 7 samples. Other bacteria
included Enterobacter spp (4/29), Citrobacter spp
(3/29), and Moraxella spp, Klebsiella spp, Bordetella
spp, or Acinetobacter spp (2/29 dogs each). Anaerobic
and aerobic cultures yielded positive results in samples
from 2 dogs. Cytologic results were available for
13 dogs with positive results of bacteriologic culture;
epithelial cells were reported most commonly. Five
samples had a small number of neutrophils; bacteria
were identified cytologically in 2 of 5 samples that
contained neutrophils. Bacteria were also seen in 2
samples that lacked inflammatory cells.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bacteria are
commonly isolated from samples obtained via airway
brushing in dogs with tracheal collapse; however, in
the absence of cytologic confirmation of inflammation
or infection, an association between bacteria and clinical
signs of tracheal collapse cannot be established.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1247–1250)
Objective—To determine results of diagnostic testing, including detection of nasal or frontal sinus fungal plaques, in dogs with nasal aspergillosis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—46 dogs with nasal aspergillosis.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on computed tomographic findings; rhinoscopic findings, including whether fungal plaques were seen in the nasal cavity; results of frontal sinus trephination and sinuscopy, including whether fungal plaques were seen in the frontal sinus; and results of histologic examination of biopsy specimens.
Results—In 38 (83%) dogs, fungal plaques were seen in the nasal cavity during rhinoscopy, whereas in the remaining 8 (17%), fungal plaques were not seen in the nasal cavity but were seen in the frontal sinus. Duration of clinical signs, proportions of dogs in which the referring veterinarian had performed a nasal examination prior to referral, proportions of dogs with computed tomographic evidence of nasal cavity cavitation or sinus involvement, and proportions of dogs with rhinoscopic evidence of destructive rhinitis were not significantly different between dogs with nasal fungal plaques and dogs with fungal plaques only in the frontal sinus.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results confirm that frontal sinus involvement is common in dogs with nasal aspergillosis and suggest that frontal sinus trephination and sinuscopy may aid in the diagnosis of aspergillosis in dogs, particularly dogs with rhinoscopic evidence of destructive rhinitis and computed tomographic evidence of sinus involvement that lack detectable fungal plaques in the nasal cavity.
OBJECTIVE To describe vertebral left atrial size (VLAS), a quantitative method to estimate left atrial (LA) size radiographically, and to determine its diagnostic value for prediction of echocardiographic LA enlargement in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) of varying severity.
DESIGN Prospective observational study.
ANIMALS 103 client-owned dogs with a left-sided systolic murmur.
PROCEDURES For each dog, 3-view thoracic radiographs were obtained within 24 hours of an echocardiographic examination. The VLAS was measured on right and left lateral thoracic radiographs and compared with the left atrium-to-aortic root ratio acquired from short-axis (LA:AoSx) and long-axis (LA:AoLx) echocardiographic images. Left atrial enlargement was defined as an LA:AoLx ≥ 2.6 or LA:AoSx ≥ 1.6. Dogs were allocated to 4 groups on the basis of MMVD severity.
RESULTS Of the 103 dogs, 15, 40, 26, and 22 were assigned to the control (no echocardiographic abnormalities), stage B1 (hemodynamically irrelevant MMVD), B2 (hemodynamically relevant MMVD), and C-D (MMVD with congestive heart failure) groups, respectively. Median VLAS, LA:AoSx, and LA:AoLx for the stage B2 and C-D groups were significantly greater than the corresponding medians for the control and stage B1 groups. There was a moderate positive correlation between VLAS and both LA:AoSx and LA:AoLx. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that a VLAS ≥ 2.3 vertebrae was a useful predictor of LA enlargement. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements for VLAS measurements were high.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated VLAS was a repeatable and useful radiographic measurement for prediction of LA enlargement in dogs with MMVD.
Objective—To determine clinical, clinicopathologic,
and radiographic abnormalities in dogs with coccidioidomycosis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedure—Clinical information and results of clinicopathologic
testing were obtained from medical
records. Thoracic radiographs were reviewed to characterize
Results—Dogs ranged from 1 to 10 years old at the
time of diagnosis, with 12 dogs being between 1 and
3 years old. Historical complaints included cough,
lameness, signs of head or neck pain, and difficulty
breathing. Mild anemia, neutrophilia, and monocytosis
were common. All dogs had hypoalbuminemia,
and 8 of 15 had hyperglobulinemia. Thoracic radiographs
of 19 dogs were reviewed. Pulmonary infiltrates
were seen in 13 dogs, with an interstitial pattern
of infiltration being most common. Hilar lymphadenopathy
was seen radiographically in 10 dogs.
Serum from 20 dogs was tested for antibodies
against Coccidioides immitis. One dog was positive
for IgM antibodies, 5 were positive for IgM and IgG
antibodies, and 14 were positive for IgG antibodies.
Quantitative IgG titers measured in 14 dogs ranged
from 1:2 to 1:128 (median and mode, 1:32). In 6 dogs,
histologic examination of biopsy samples revealed
fungal spherules ranging from 8 to 70 μm in diameter.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that in dogs, coccidioidomycosis may be associated
with a wide spectrum of nonspecific respiratory and
musculoskeletal abnormalities. The chronic nature of
the disease makes diagnosis difficult, even in regions in
which the organism is endemic. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine the degree of fluctuation in tracheal dimensions between forced inspiration and passive expiration in healthy dogs of various sizes.
Animals—10 client-owned dogs with no evidence of respiratory disease or tracheal collapse.
Procedures—Anesthetized dogs underwent a computed tomographic examination during forced inspiration and induced but passive expiration to assess tracheal dimensions. Tracheal height, width, and cross-sectional area were measured at inspiration and expiration, and percentage change in dimension was calculated for each variable.
Results—Measurements were acquired in 10 dogs that ranged in body weight from 3.5 to 47.8 kg. Tracheal cross-sectional area at inspiration and expiration was associated with body weight at all 3 tracheal regions. The percentage change in tracheal height and cross-sectional area was associated with body weight in the cervical but not the thoracic-inlet or thoracic regions. The tracheal cross-sectional area changed by as much as 24.2% (mean, 5.5%), 20.0% (mean, 6.0%), and 18.6% (mean, 6.0%) in the cervical, thoracic-inlet, and thoracic regions, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The change in tracheal cross-sectional area from inspiration to expiration was as great as 24% in healthy dogs, and the area was associated with body weight. Respiratory fluctuations appeared to result in changes in tracheal dimension during respiration similar to those reported for humans.
Objective—To assess the role of Bartonella spp in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) by determining detection rates for the organism by serologic testing and microbial culture of blood samples for Bartonella spp in cats with CRS and control cats (cats with other nasal diseases, cats with systemic illnesses, and healthy cats).
Design—Prospective case-control study.
Animals—19 cats with CRS, 10 cats with other nasal diseases, 15 cats with systemic illness, and 15 healthy cats.
Procedures—Serologic testing for Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae and microbial culture of blood samples were conducted in all cats. In cats with CRS and cats with other nasal diseases, a nasal biopsy specimen was submitted, when available, for tissue PCR assay to detect Bartonella spp.
Results—9 of 19 cats with CRS had positive results for serologic testing for 1 or both Bartonella spp; whereas, 4 of 10 cats with other nasal diseases, 2 of 15 cats with systemic diseases, and 4 of 15 healthy cats had positive results for serologic testing to detect Bartonella spp. These values did not differ significantly among groups. Microbial culture of blood samples yielded B henselae in 1 cat with a nasopharyngeal abscess. The PCR assay for Bartonella spp in nasal tissues yielded negative results for 9 of 9 cats with CRS and 5 of 5 cats with other nasal diseases.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A role for Bartonella spp in the pathogenesis of CRS in cats was not supported by results of this study.
Objective—To describe the clinical and laboratory findings, diagnostic features, and outcome of tracheal collapse in American Miniature Horses at a referral institution.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—13 American Miniature Horses with tracheal collapse.
Procedures—Medical records of American Miniature Horses with tracheal collapse at a referral hospital were reviewed. Data extracted included signalment, history, clinical signs, laboratory data, diagnostic procedures, outcome, and histologic findings.
Results—Tracheal collapse was documented in 5.6% of American Miniature Horses admitted to this referral hospital. Median age at onset of clinical signs was 11 years with a range of 2 to 15 years. Common complaints and clinical signs included respiratory distress, tachypnea, inspiratory honking noises, and increased abdominal expiratory effort, which were exacerbated by stressful events, pregnancy, exercise, a dusty environment, and eating. Tracheal collapse was confirmed by use of radiography, endoscopy, fluoroscopy, or postmortem examination. Dorsoventral flattening of the extra- or intrathoracic trachea, or both, was more common than lateral collapse. Tracheal chondromalacia was identified histologically in 4 cases, and mortality rate for affected horses was 10 of 13.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tracheal collapse was relatively common in this study of American Miniature Horses, and outcome was poor. The etiopathogenesis of the disease remains unknown.