A 4-year-old 11.2-kg (24.7-lb) castrated male French Bulldog was evaluated on an emergency basis at the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center because of acute bilateral hind limb paraparesis. The patient became nonambulatory in the hind limbs after having been dropped by the owner. Past history included inflammatory bowel disease controlled with dietary modifications and a greenstick tibial fracture of unspecified etiology as a puppy. More recently, the patient had been acting lethargic with episodes of trembling for several days prior to the onset of paresis. It also had had a decreased appetite and 1 episode of diarrhea.
A 4-month-old 1.6-kg (3.5-lb) sexually intact female domestic shorthair kitten was referred to the North Carolina State University Small Animal Emergency Service because of progressive respiratory distress. One week earlier, the referring veterinarian had sedated the kitten with IM administration of dexmedetomidine, ketamine, and butorphanol (doses unknown) for radiographic examination because of a 1.5-month history of nasal discharge from the left nostril combined with increased respiratory rate and effort that had not responded to medical management. While sedated, the kitten became cyanotic. Intubation attempts failed because of an undefined oropharyngeal obstruction; thus, supplemental O2 was provided by
A 13-year-old 8.7-kg (19.1-lb) castrated male mixed-breed dog was referred to the Neurology Service of the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center for evaluation after being examined by the referring veterinarian 5 days prior. At the time of the referring veterinarian visit, the dog had a 2-day history of once-daily fainting episodes when excited, a left-sided head tilt, lethargy, incoordination, inappetence, restlessness, and exophthalmos of the right eye. Other pertinent history included recent rough play with a larger dog, occasional coughing and sneezing, and mild intermittent bradycardia (58 to 80 beats/min) as diagnosed by the referring veterinarian. Additionally, protein-losing
OBJECTIVE To compare the doses of propofol required to induce general anesthesia in dogs premedicated with acepromazine maleate or trazodone hydrochloride and compare the effects of these premedicants on cardiovascular variables in dogs anesthetized for orthopedic surgery.
PROCEDURES 15 dogs received acepromazine (0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg [0.005 to 0.014 mg/lb], IM) 30 minutes before anesthetic induction and 15 received trazodone (5 mg/kg [2.27 mg/lb] for patients > 10 kg or 7 mg/kg [3.18 mg/lb] for patients ≤ 10 kg, PO) 2 hours before induction. Both groups received morphine sulfate (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], IM) 30 minutes before induction. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4 to 6 mg/kg [1.82 to 2.73 mg/lb], IV, to effect) and maintained with isoflurane or sevoflurane in oxygen. Bupivacaine (0.5 mg/kg [0.227 mg/lb]) and morphine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]) were administered epidurally. Dogs underwent tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (n = 22) or tibial tuberosity advancement (8) and were monitored throughout anesthesia. Propofol induction doses and cardiovascular variables (heart rate and systemic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures) were compared between groups.
RESULTS The mean dose of propofol required for anesthetic induction and all cardiovascular variables evaluated did not differ between groups. Intraoperative hypotension developed in 6 and 5 dogs of the acepromazine and trazodone groups, respectively; bradycardia requiring intervention developed in 3 dogs/group. One dog that received trazodone had priapism 24 hours later and was treated successfully. No other adverse effects were reported.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE At the described dosages, cardiovascular effects of trazodone were similar to those of acepromazine in healthy dogs undergoing anesthesia for orthopedic surgery.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the intracoelemic (ICe) dose of alfaxalone required to induce loss of righting reflex (LRR) in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) and to evaluate the tactile stimulus response in unanesthetized and alfaxalone-anesthetized snakes.
ANIMALS: 8 healthy mature garter snakes.
PROCEDURES: During the first of 3 phases, snakes received each of 3 doses (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) of alfaxalone, ICe, with a 2-week washout period between treatments. Times to LRR and return of righting reflex were determined after each dose. During phase 2, unanesthetized snakes underwent tactile stimulation testing with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments once daily for 3 consecutive days to determine the baseline tactile pressure required to elicit purposeful movement. During phase 3, snakes were anesthetized with alfaxalone (30 mg/kg, ICe), and the tactile pressure required to induce purposeful movement was assessed at predetermined times after LRR.
RESULTS: Intracoelomic administration of alfaxalone at doses of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg induced LRR in 0, 5, and 8 snakes, respectively. For snakes with LRR, median time to LRR following the 30-mg/kg dose (3.8 minutes) was significantly shorter than that following the 20-mg/kg dose (8.3 minutes); median time to return of righting reflex did not differ between the 2 doses. Mean ± SD tactile pressure that resulted in purposeful movement in unanesthetized snakes was 16.9 ± 14.3 g. When snakes were anesthetized, the mean tactile pressure that resulted in purposeful movement was significantly increased from baseline at 10, 20, and 30 minutes after LRR.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested ICe administration of alfaxalone might be effective for anesthetizing garter snakes.