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- Author or Editor: Luiz Claudio N. Mendes x
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Objective—To compare results reported for blood gas partial pressures, electrolyte concentrations, and Hct in venous blood samples collected from cattle, horses, and sheep and analyzed by use of a portable clinical analyzer (PCA) and reference analyzer (RA).
Animals—Clinically normal animals (24 cattle, 22 horses, and 22 sheep).
Procedures—pH; Pco 2; Po 2; total carbon dioxide concentration; oxygen saturation; base excess; concentrations of HCO3 −, Na+, K+, and ionized calcium; Hct; and hemoglobin concentration were determined with a PCA. Results were compared with those obtained for the same blood sample with an RA. Bias (mean difference) and variability (95% confidence interval) were determined for all data reported. Data were also subjected to analyses by Deming regression and Pearson correlation.
Results—Analysis of Bland-Altman plots revealed good agreement between results obtained with the PCA and those obtained with the RA for pH and total carbon dioxide concentration in cattle, K+ concentration in horses and sheep, and base excess in horses. Except for Na+ concentration and Hct in horses and sheep, correlation was good or excellent for most variables reported.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data from blood gas and electrolyte analyses obtained by use of the PCA can be used to evaluate the health status of cattle, horses, and sheep. Furthermore, the handheld PCA device may have a great advantage over the RA device as a result of the ability to analyze blood samples on farms that may be located far from urban centers.
Objective—To identify differentially expressed genes in pulmonary tissues of horses affected with summer pasture-associated obstructive pulmonary disease (SPAOPD), which is a form of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), compared with those of unaffected horses.
Animals—6 horses with SPAOPD-RAO and 6 unaffected (healthy) horses.
Procedures—Horses were assigned to 2 groups on the basis of medical history, clinical score, and transpleural pressure. Total RNA from each of the 5 lung lobes of each of the 6 SPAOPD-RAO–affected horses was extracted and pooled. Similarly, total RNA from unaffected horses was pooled. Differential display (DD) PCR assay was performed, and differentially expressed bands were purified and cloned into a plasmid vector. Plasmids were extracted from recombinant colonies, and purified DNA was sequenced. Genes of interest for RAO pathogenesis were identified. Real-time PCR assay was performed to confirm findings for the DD PCR assay.
Results—18 differentially expressed genes (17 upregulated and 1 downregulated) were identified. Three genes of particular interest were found to be altered (2 upregulated and 1 downregulated) in horses with SPAOPD-RAO by use of real-time PCR assay, and these findings matched the differential expression found by use of the DD PCR assay.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—SPAOPD-RAO in horses is a multifactorial, complex disease involving several genes. Upregulated genes, particularly β2-microglobulin, and the downregulated secretoglobin gene can serve as marker genes that may help to identify SPAOPD-RAO at an early age.