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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare the time to desaturation in healthy dogs that breathed oxygen or room air for 3 minutes before induction of anesthesia.

Animals—20 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were sedated with morphine and acepromazine maleate. Dogs received a 3-minute treatment of room air or oxygen (100 mL/kg/min) via face mask. Arterial blood samples were collected before and after treatment to determine PaCO 2, PaO 2, pH, and SaO 2; propofol (6 mg/kg, IV) was injected during a 7-second period, and the dogs were intubated. A lingual pulse oximeter probe was placed. Dogs remained disconnected from the breathing circuit until SpO 2 equaled 90% (desaturation point) and then connected and ventilated until the SpO 2 was ≥ 97%. Arterial blood samples were collected and SpO 2 was recorded every 30 seconds for 4 minutes and then every minute until the desaturation point. Times to first breath and the desaturation point were recorded. Data were collected at 0, 5, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 seconds.

Results—Mean ± SEM time to desaturation differed significantly between dogs treated with room air (69.6 ± 10.6 seconds) and oxygen (297.8 ± 42.0 seconds). Lowest mean PaO 2 and SaO 2 when dogs were breathing room air were 62 ± 6.3 mm Hg and 82.3 ± 4%, respectively, at 30 seconds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preoxygenation for 3 minutes increased the time to desaturation in healthy dogs sedated with acepromazine and morphine in which anesthesia was induced with propofol.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of lumbosacral intrathecal administration of 2% lidocaine in goats undergoing cesarean sections (C-sections).


7 client-owned goats.


Medical records were retrospectively reviewed to identify records of goats undergoing C-sections between January 2020 and November 2021 with intrathecal administration of lidocaine as the primary method of analgesia. Effect of analgesia, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, quality of surgery (determined based on lack of patient movement), mean surgical time, time to stand, and anesthetic complications were recorded.


Intrathecal administration of preservative-free 2% lidocaine (1 mg/kg) at the lumbosacral space with the use of a 20-gauge 3.5-inch (0.9 X 90-mm) spinal needle under aseptic technique achieved effective analgesia in sedated goats by time of skin incision. Adequacy of analgesia was complete (failure to respond to needle-prick of skin or skin incision) in 6 of the 7 goats and moderate in 1 goat. Quality of surgery was adequate in all goats. Mean surgical time was 96 ± 20 minutes, and mean time to stand was 182 ± 61 minutes from the time of intrathecal administration. Complications included ruminal tympany, hypothermia, and partial blockade in 1 goat each.


Results indicated that intrathecal administration of lidocaine as described in the present report provided adequate analgesia for C-sections in goats, with minimal complications, and quicker return to hindlimb motor function postoperatively than historically reported for epidurals.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of diazepam combined with ketamine hydrochloride or propofol for induction of anesthesia (IOA) following premedication with sustained-release buprenorphine hydrochloride (SRB) on intraocular pressure (IOP) in sheep.

ANIMALS 20 healthy adult sheep.

PROCEDURES Diazepam with ketamine or propofol was given IV to each of 10 sheep after premedication with SRB (0.01 mg/kg, SC); after > 4 weeks, each sheep received the other induction combination with no premedication. For both eyes, IOPs were measured before premedication (if given), 10 minutes prior to (baseline) and immediately following administration of ketamine or propofol (time of IOA), after endotracheal intubation, and 5 minutes after IOA. Peak end-tidal Pco 2, globe position, and pupillary diameter were also analyzed.

RESULTS Data were not available for all sheep for all anesthetic episodes. Propofol-diazepam administration alone had no significant effect on IOP, whereas there was a significant decrease in IOP immediately following ketamine-diazepam administration alone. At 5 minutes after ketamine-diazepam administration, SRB-premedicated sheep had significantly higher IOP than unpremedicated sheep. Intraocular pressure was significantly higher at baseline, at intubation, and 5 minutes after IOA in SRB-premedicated sheep receiving propofol-diazepam, compared with unpremedicated sheep. Peak end-tidal Pco 2 at intubation was significantly higher in SRB-premedicated sheep. For sheep receiving either anesthetic treatment, IOPs did not differ significantly with or without SRB premedication. Globe position or pupillary diameter and IOP were not significantly related at any time point.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that both ketamine-diazepam and propofol-diazepam combinations were suitable for IOA without increasing IOP in sheep. The use of SRB should be avoided in sheep when increases in IOP are undesirable.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To determine the median effective dose (ED50) of propofol required for induction of anesthesia in goats and the frequency of myoclonic activity and apnea associated with propofol administration.


Clinical trial.


28 healthy mature goats.


ED50 was determined by use of the up-and-down method. The first goat was given 4 mg of propofol/kg (1.8 mg/lb) of body weight, IV. Dose was increased by 25% for the next goat if endotracheal intubation was not possible and decreased by 20% if it was. For each subsequent goat, dose was determined on the basis of response of the previous goat. The ED50 was calculated by use of probit analysis. Induction time, frequency and duration of apnea, frequency of myoclonus, and other adverse effects were recorded.


ED50 was determined to be 5.1 mg/kg (2.3 mg/lb). Mean (± SD) induction time was 23.2 ± 4.7 seconds. Apnea was observed in 27 of 28 goats; mean (± SD) duration of apnea was 72.9 ± 38.3 seconds. Dose did not correlate with duration of apnea. Myoclonic activity was observed in 16 of 28 goats; frequency of myoclonus was not associated with dose. Cyanosis, regurgitation, and signs of pain during injection were not observed.

Clinical Implications—

Administration of propofol at 5.1 mg/kg (2.3 mg/lb), IV, should permit endotracheal intubation in half of unpremedicated, healthy, mature goats. Myoclonus and apnea were associated with propofol administration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:86–88)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare preoperative administration of meloxicam and butorphanol to perioperative administration of butorphanol alone for control of postoperative signs of pain in dogs.

Animals—40 client-owned dogs scheduled for surgical repair of a cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

Procedure—Group-1 dogs received butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, IV) and meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, IV) just prior to surgery. Group-2 dogs received butorphanol just prior to surgery (0.2 mg/kg, IV) and at incision closure (0.1 mg/kg, IV). Pain assessment began 1 to 2 hours before surgery and from extubation until 24 hours after surgery by obtaining the following measurements: the visual analog scale (VAS) score, cumulative pain score (CPS), adjusted cumulative pain score, modified cumulative pain score, and the adjusted modified cumulative pain score (AMCPS). Serum cortisol concentration was measured between 12 to 24 and between 1 to 2 hours prior to surgery, and at 30 minutes, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 18, and 24 hours after extubation.

Results—No significant differences between treatment groups were observed in CPS or VAS score. At 8, 9, 10, and 11 hours after extubation, meloxicambutorphanol- treated dogs had a significantly lower AMCPS, compared with butorphanol-alone-treated dogs. Total serum cortisol concentration (area under the curve) during the measurement period was significantly lower in meloxicam-butorphanol-treated dogs, compared with butorphanol-alone treated dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preoperative single dose administration of meloxicam-butorphanol is equivalent to or slightly better than the administration of 2 perioperative doses of butorphanol for the control of postoperative signs of pain in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1557–1563)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of anesthetic induction with a benzodiazepine plus ketamine or propofol on hypothermia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy without heat support.

ANIMALS 23 adult sexually intact female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

PROCEDURES Baseline rectal temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were recorded prior to premedication with buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg, IM) and acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg, IM). Anesthesia was induced with midazolam or diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, IV) plus ketamine (5 mg/kg, IV; n = 11) or propofol (4 mg/kg, IV; 12) and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Rectal temperature was measured at hospital intake, prior to premedication, immediately after anesthetic induction, and every 5 minutes after anesthetic induction. Esophageal temperature was measured every 5 minutes during anesthesia, beginning 30 minutes after anesthetic induction. After anesthesia, dogs were covered with a warm-air blanket and rectal temperature was measured every 10 minutes until normothermia (37°C) was achieved.

RESULTS Dogs in both treatment groups had lower rectal temperatures within 5 minutes after anesthetic induction and throughout anesthesia. Compared with dogs that received a benzodiazepine plus ketamine, dogs that received a benzodiazepine plus propofol had significantly lower rectal temperatures and the interval from discontinuation of anesthesia to achievement of normothermia was significantly longer.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dogs in which anesthesia was induced with a benzodiazepine plus propofol or ketamine became hypothermic; the extent of hypothermia was more profound for the propofol combination. Dogs should be provided with adequate heat support after induction of anesthesia, particularly when a propofol-benzodiazepine combination is administered.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



Sedative, cardiorespiratory, and analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of medetomidine (40 µg/kg of body weight)-glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg) and medetomidine (10 µg/kg)-butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg)-glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg) combinations were compared. Additional evaluations were done on reversal of medetomidine, using atipamezole (200 µ g/kg, IV), after 90 minutes of medetomidine-induced sedation.


Crossover study, with each dog receiving each drug combination at 1-week intervals.


Six 2-year-old English hound-type dogs.


Arterial blood pressure, ECG, respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute volume, arterial blood gas tensions, and serum biochemical variables were measured before, during, and after sedation. Analgesia was evaluated by needle prick on the skin and tail clamp.


Heart rate decreased significantly from 100 beats/mm to <40 beats/min within 3 minutes of injection of medetomidine and medetomidine. and butorphanol (MB). Mean arterial blood pressure in both groups were maintained above 100 mm of Hg throughout the recording period. There was no significant difference between medetomidine and MB in respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute ventilation. Hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm of Hg) was observed at 10 and 20 minutes in 2 dogs given MB. Atipamezole administration in the dogs given medetomidine significantly increased PaO2 and returned the values to baseline. Needle prick analgesia duration was longer in the medetomidine (80 ± 7.7 minutes) than MB (56.0 ± 19.2 minutes) group. Tail pinch analgesia was variable in both groups. Duration of lateral recumbency was longer after medetomidine (90 ± 0 minutes) than MB (73.5 ± 19.0 minutes).


Medetomidine and MB were effective combinations for mildly invasive procedures.

Clinical Relevance

MB induced a shorter period of analgesia and recumbency than did medetomidine. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:535–540)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


The carotid artery of clinically normal goats was examined, using duplex ultrasonography and arteriography. The diameter of the carotid artery was measured by use of two-dimensional ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography, respectively, before and after xylazine administration. The diameter of the artery was also measured by use of an arteriography technique in halothaneanesthetized goats. There was no significant difference between the mean diameter of the carotid artery measured by ultrasonography in conscious nonsedated goats and that determined by arteriography in goats under halothane anesthesia. On the other hand, ultrasonography of xylazine-sedated goats revealed an increase of carotid artery diameter of 20 to 30%. There was no change in the velocity of blood flow after xylazine administration.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research