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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the time to desaturation in healthy dogs that breathed oxygen or room air for 3 minutes before induction of anesthesia.

Animals—20 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were sedated with morphine and acepromazine maleate. Dogs received a 3-minute treatment of room air or oxygen (100 mL/kg/min) via face mask. Arterial blood samples were collected before and after treatment to determine PaCO 2, PaO 2, pH, and SaO 2; propofol (6 mg/kg, IV) was injected during a 7-second period, and the dogs were intubated. A lingual pulse oximeter probe was placed. Dogs remained disconnected from the breathing circuit until SpO 2 equaled 90% (desaturation point) and then connected and ventilated until the SpO 2 was ≥ 97%. Arterial blood samples were collected and SpO 2 was recorded every 30 seconds for 4 minutes and then every minute until the desaturation point. Times to first breath and the desaturation point were recorded. Data were collected at 0, 5, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 seconds.

Results—Mean ± SEM time to desaturation differed significantly between dogs treated with room air (69.6 ± 10.6 seconds) and oxygen (297.8 ± 42.0 seconds). Lowest mean PaO 2 and SaO 2 when dogs were breathing room air were 62 ± 6.3 mm Hg and 82.3 ± 4%, respectively, at 30 seconds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preoxygenation for 3 minutes increased the time to desaturation in healthy dogs sedated with acepromazine and morphine in which anesthesia was induced with propofol.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of diazepam combined with ketamine hydrochloride or propofol for induction of anesthesia (IOA) following premedication with sustained-release buprenorphine hydrochloride (SRB) on intraocular pressure (IOP) in sheep.

ANIMALS 20 healthy adult sheep.

PROCEDURES Diazepam with ketamine or propofol was given IV to each of 10 sheep after premedication with SRB (0.01 mg/kg, SC); after > 4 weeks, each sheep received the other induction combination with no premedication. For both eyes, IOPs were measured before premedication (if given), 10 minutes prior to (baseline) and immediately following administration of ketamine or propofol (time of IOA), after endotracheal intubation, and 5 minutes after IOA. Peak end-tidal Pco 2, globe position, and pupillary diameter were also analyzed.

RESULTS Data were not available for all sheep for all anesthetic episodes. Propofol-diazepam administration alone had no significant effect on IOP, whereas there was a significant decrease in IOP immediately following ketamine-diazepam administration alone. At 5 minutes after ketamine-diazepam administration, SRB-premedicated sheep had significantly higher IOP than unpremedicated sheep. Intraocular pressure was significantly higher at baseline, at intubation, and 5 minutes after IOA in SRB-premedicated sheep receiving propofol-diazepam, compared with unpremedicated sheep. Peak end-tidal Pco 2 at intubation was significantly higher in SRB-premedicated sheep. For sheep receiving either anesthetic treatment, IOPs did not differ significantly with or without SRB premedication. Globe position or pupillary diameter and IOP were not significantly related at any time point.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that both ketamine-diazepam and propofol-diazepam combinations were suitable for IOA without increasing IOP in sheep. The use of SRB should be avoided in sheep when increases in IOP are undesirable.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of lumbosacral intrathecal administration of 2% lidocaine in goats undergoing cesarean sections (C-sections).

ANIMALS

7 client-owned goats.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were retrospectively reviewed to identify records of goats undergoing C-sections between January 2020 and November 2021 with intrathecal administration of lidocaine as the primary method of analgesia. Effect of analgesia, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, quality of surgery (determined based on lack of patient movement), mean surgical time, time to stand, and anesthetic complications were recorded.

RESULTS

Intrathecal administration of preservative-free 2% lidocaine (1 mg/kg) at the lumbosacral space with the use of a 20-gauge 3.5-inch (0.9 X 90-mm) spinal needle under aseptic technique achieved effective analgesia in sedated goats by time of skin incision. Adequacy of analgesia was complete (failure to respond to needle-prick of skin or skin incision) in 6 of the 7 goats and moderate in 1 goat. Quality of surgery was adequate in all goats. Mean surgical time was 96 ± 20 minutes, and mean time to stand was 182 ± 61 minutes from the time of intrathecal administration. Complications included ruminal tympany, hypothermia, and partial blockade in 1 goat each.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that intrathecal administration of lidocaine as described in the present report provided adequate analgesia for C-sections in goats, with minimal complications, and quicker return to hindlimb motor function postoperatively than historically reported for epidurals.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare preoperative administration of meloxicam and butorphanol to perioperative administration of butorphanol alone for control of postoperative signs of pain in dogs.

Animals—40 client-owned dogs scheduled for surgical repair of a cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

Procedure—Group-1 dogs received butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, IV) and meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, IV) just prior to surgery. Group-2 dogs received butorphanol just prior to surgery (0.2 mg/kg, IV) and at incision closure (0.1 mg/kg, IV). Pain assessment began 1 to 2 hours before surgery and from extubation until 24 hours after surgery by obtaining the following measurements: the visual analog scale (VAS) score, cumulative pain score (CPS), adjusted cumulative pain score, modified cumulative pain score, and the adjusted modified cumulative pain score (AMCPS). Serum cortisol concentration was measured between 12 to 24 and between 1 to 2 hours prior to surgery, and at 30 minutes, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 18, and 24 hours after extubation.

Results—No significant differences between treatment groups were observed in CPS or VAS score. At 8, 9, 10, and 11 hours after extubation, meloxicambutorphanol- treated dogs had a significantly lower AMCPS, compared with butorphanol-alone-treated dogs. Total serum cortisol concentration (area under the curve) during the measurement period was significantly lower in meloxicam-butorphanol-treated dogs, compared with butorphanol-alone treated dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preoperative single dose administration of meloxicam-butorphanol is equivalent to or slightly better than the administration of 2 perioperative doses of butorphanol for the control of postoperative signs of pain in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1557–1563)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of anesthetic induction with a benzodiazepine plus ketamine or propofol on hypothermia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy without heat support.

ANIMALS 23 adult sexually intact female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

PROCEDURES Baseline rectal temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were recorded prior to premedication with buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg, IM) and acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg, IM). Anesthesia was induced with midazolam or diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, IV) plus ketamine (5 mg/kg, IV; n = 11) or propofol (4 mg/kg, IV; 12) and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Rectal temperature was measured at hospital intake, prior to premedication, immediately after anesthetic induction, and every 5 minutes after anesthetic induction. Esophageal temperature was measured every 5 minutes during anesthesia, beginning 30 minutes after anesthetic induction. After anesthesia, dogs were covered with a warm-air blanket and rectal temperature was measured every 10 minutes until normothermia (37°C) was achieved.

RESULTS Dogs in both treatment groups had lower rectal temperatures within 5 minutes after anesthetic induction and throughout anesthesia. Compared with dogs that received a benzodiazepine plus ketamine, dogs that received a benzodiazepine plus propofol had significantly lower rectal temperatures and the interval from discontinuation of anesthesia to achievement of normothermia was significantly longer.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dogs in which anesthesia was induced with a benzodiazepine plus propofol or ketamine became hypothermic; the extent of hypothermia was more profound for the propofol combination. Dogs should be provided with adequate heat support after induction of anesthesia, particularly when a propofol-benzodiazepine combination is administered.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research