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  • Author or Editor: Luis P. Macho x
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To identify metabolites and metabolic pathways affected in dogs with aminoaciduric canine hypoaminoacidemic hepatopathy syndrome (ACHES) compared to healthy control (CON) dogs of similar ages and breeds. To improve our understanding of ACHES pathophysiology and identify novel candidate biomarkers associated with ACHES.


A prospective case-control study. Privately owned dogs with ACHES (n = 19) and healthy (CON) dogs (n = 9) were recruited between February 18, 2015, and April 18, 2018.


A prospective case-control study. Plasma and urine were collected from ACHES and CON dogs. The Cornell University Proteomics and Metabolomics Core Facility conducted an untargeted metabolomic analysis.


After controlling for age, sex, and weight, 111 plasma and 207 urine metabolites significantly differed between ACHES and CON dogs. Data reduction and cluster analysis revealed robust segregation between ACHES and CON dogs. Enrichment analysis of significant compounds in plasma or urine identified altered metabolic pathways, including those related to AA metabolism, cellular energetics, and lipid metabolism. Biomarker analysis identified metabolites that best-distinguished ACHES from CON dogs, including pyruvic acid isomer and glycerol-3-phosphate in the plasma and an alanine isomer and choline in the urine.


Our findings provide an in-depth analysis of metabolic perturbations associated with ACHES. Several affected metabolic pathways (eg, lipid metabolism) offer a new understanding of ACHES pathophysiology. Novel candidate biomarkers warrant further evaluation to determine their potential to aid in ACHES diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment monitoring.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To characterize clinical, clinicopathologic, and hepatic histopathologic features and outcome for dogs with probable ketoconazole-induced liver injury.


15 dogs with suspected ketoconazole-induced liver injury that underwent liver biopsy.


Medical record data were summarized regarding signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathologic and hepatic histopathologic findings, concurrent medications, ketoconazole dose, treatment duration, and outcome.


Median age and body weight were 8.2 years (range, 5 to 15 years) and 13.0 kg (28.6 lb; range, 8.2 to 38.0 kg [18.0 to 83.6 lb]), respectively. The most common breed was Cocker Spaniel (n = 5). All dogs received ketoconazole to treat cutaneous Malassezia infections. Median daily ketoconazole dose was 7.8 mg/kg (3.5 mg/lb; range, 4.4 to 26.0 mg/kg [2.0 to 11.8 mg/lb]), PO. Treatment duration ranged from 0.3 to 100 cumulative weeks (intermittent cyclic administration in some dogs); 6 dogs were treated for ≤ 10 days. Common clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. All dogs developed high serum liver enzyme activities. Hepatic histopathologic findings included variable lobular injury, mixed inflammatory infiltrates, and conspicuous aggregates of ceroid-lipofuscin–engorged macrophages that marked regions of parenchymal damage. Five dogs developed chronic hepatitis, including 3 with pyogranulomatous inflammation. Of the 10 dogs reported to have died at last follow-up, survival time after illness onset ranged from 0.5 to 165 weeks, with 7 dogs dying of liver-related causes.


Findings for dogs with hepatotoxicosis circumstantially associated with ketoconazole treatment suggested proactive monitoring of serum liver enzyme activities is advisable before and sequentially after initiation of such treatment.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association