OBJECTIVE To characterize CT findings in dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, estimate the accuracy of thoracic CT for the diagnosis of chronic bronchitis in dogs, and determine interobserver agreement for this method.
DESIGN Retrospective case-control and cross-sectional study.
ANIMALS 26 dogs with confirmed chronic bronchitis and 20 control dogs with unremarkable results of thoracic CT and no recorded history of cough.
PROCEDURES Thoracic CT images of all dogs were interpreted for signs of chronic bronchitis by 2 observers who used specific criteria; observers also used the images to compute the bronchial wall thickness-to-pulmonary artery diameter (BWPA) ratio of the cranial lung lobes. Interobserver agreement was assessed for both diagnostic approaches. Performance of thoracic CT and the BWPA ratio specifically in the diagnosis of chronic bronchitis were evaluated, with the final diagnosis made by the attending internist as the reference standard. Associations between independent variables and the BWPA ratio for all dogs were assessed by linear regression.
RESULTS Accuracy of thoracic CT examination for the diagnosis of chronic bronchitis was 57%, sensitivity was 46%, and specificity was 90%. Interobserver agreement was moderate (κ = 0.50). The BWPA ratio had poor accuracy for discriminating dogs with chronic bronchitis from control dogs. Linear regression revealed that as dog body weight increased, BWPA ratios for the left and right cranial lung lobes decreased slightly but significantly.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE These results suggested that thoracic CT and the associated BWPA ratio have limited value in the diagnosis of chronic bronchitis in dogs.
Objective—To compare ultrasonographic, CT, and surgical findings in dogs infested with giant kidney worms (Dioctophyme renale).
Animals—15 crossbred dogs infected with D renale.
Procedures—Immediately after ultrasonography was performed with dogs in dorsal recumbency, sequential transverse images of the abdomen were acquired with a helical CT scanner. After plain CT, contrast CT was performed with a nonionic iodinated contrast agent. Subsequently, exploratory celiotomy was performed.
Results—In the corticomedullary area of the right kidney of 12 dogs, ultrasonography revealed several ring-like structures with an echogenic wall and anechoic central area in the transverse plane and arrayed as bands in the longitudinal plane. Similar structures were observed in the abdominal cavity of 10 dogs. In 13 dogs, CT revealed loss of corticomedullary differentiation in the right kidney, with discrete uptake of contrast material in the periphery of the kidney, and several ring-like or elongated structures with a hyperdense wall and hypodense center. In 11 dogs, the same structures were observed free in the abdominal cavity. Surgery revealed that 13 dogs had a damaged right kidney that required nephrectomy. Parasites were found free in the abdominal cavity of 7 dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonography and CT were effective imaging methods for detecting D renale in the kidney and less effective for detecting parasites in the abdominal cavity. Care should be taken to avoid erroneously interpreting normal structures as parasites, especially in the abdominal cavity.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate pain intensity and kinetic variables in dogs with hip dysplasia (HD) treated with acupuncture, carprofen, or a placebo.
DESIGN Randomized, controlled clinical study.
ANIMALS 54 HD-affected dogs and 16 healthy dogs.
PROCEDURES Seven HD-affected dogs were removed from the study. Dogs with HD were treated in a blinded manner for 30 days with acupuncture (once weekly for 5 sessions; n = 15), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg [2.0 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h; n = 16), or placebo capsules containing lactose (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h; n = 16). Dogs were evaluated 2 weeks and immediately before (baseline) and 2, 4, and 6 weeks after the onset of treatment. Owners evaluated the dogs' pain intensity with 2 validated questionnaires and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and evaluated degree of lameness with a VAS for locomotion. Kinetics of the hind limbs were also evaluated. Sixteen HD-free dogs were used to assess the evaluation protocol.
RESULTS Owners' assessments revealed that outcomes of the 3 treatments did not differ significantly. The Canine Brief Pain Inventory and VAS pain intensity assessments were decreased from baseline at weeks 4 and 6, respectively, but only in acupuncture-treated dogs. The locomotion VAS values were decreased at week 4 in acupuncture-treated and carprofen-treated dogs. Kinetic evaluation findings did not differ among the groups or over time.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Neither acupuncture nor carprofen was significantly different from placebo. Acupuncture and carprofen reduced the degree of subjectively evaluated lameness, and acupuncture was associated with a decrease in validated chronic pain scores.