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- Author or Editor: Luis J. Ezquerra x
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Objective—To evaluate the use of ultrasonography to detect morphologic changes in the pylorus during pyloroplasty performed laparoscopically or via conventional abdominal surgery in dogs.
Animals—10 healthy mixed-breed dogs.
Procedure—Laparoscopic ultrasonography of the pylorus was performed in 5 dogs during laparoscopic pyloroplasty (LP), and ultrasonography of the pylorus was performed in 5 dogs during pyloroplasty via conventional abdominal surgery (CAP group). Appearance and dimensions of the pyloric sphincter were evaluated by use of a 7.5-MHz flexible laparoscopic linear-transducer probe.
Results—Mean ± SD duration of the ultrasonographic procedure was 11 ± 3.04 minutes (range, 6 to 18 minutes). In the CAP group, cross-sectional views of the pylorus revealed significant differences between the overall transverse external diameter, overall craniocaudal external diameter, and transverse diameter of the pyloric lumen. After surgery, the pyloric area was significantly increased. Longitudinal views of the pylorus revealed that width of the pyloric ring was significantly less after surgery. Transverse views of the pylorus for the LP group revealed a significant increase in the transverse diameter and craniocaudal diameter of the pyloric lumen after LP. The pyloric area was also significantly increased after surgery. Longitudinal views of the pylorus revealed that width of the pyloric ring was significantly less after surgery. Transverse diameter of the pyloric lumen was significantly increased after LP.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of results of this study suggests that ultrasonography is useful for detecting relevant morphologic changes in the pyloric sphincter after pyloroplasty. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1099–1104)
Objective—To determine the effects of prolonged anesthesia with desflurane in dogs undergoing laparotomy or abdominal laparoscopy.
Design—Randomized prospective study.
Animals—20 adult mixed-breed dogs.
Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups with 10 dogs/group. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with desflurane and fentanyl, and pyloroplasty was performed. In 10 dogs, a ventral midline laparotomy was performed; in the other 10, abdominal laparoscopy was performed. Dogs were monitored for cardiovascular and respiratory responses (ECG, oxygen saturation [SpO2], arterial blood pressure, rectal temperature, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide [PETCO2], and expired desflurane concentration). Recovery times were recorded.
Results—Mean ± SD duration of anesthesia was 201 ± 25 minutes for dogs undergoing laparotomy and 287 ± 15 minutes for dogs undergoing laparoscopy. Anesthesia was accompanied by hypotension that was less severe in dogs undergoing laparoscopy. Heart rate did not vary significantly during anesthesia. The SpO2 was > 97% in all dogs at all times, and PETCO2 remained within reference limits. Recovery times for dogs that underwent laparotomy were not significantly different from those for dogs that underwent laparoscopy. Mean ± SD time to standing was 13.6 ± 2.4 minutes for dogs that underwent laparotomy and 12.5 ± 2.9 minutes for dogs that underwent laparoscopy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that induction of anesthesia with propofol and maintenance with desflurane and fentanyl is safe in dogs undergoing abdominal surgery. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:941–945)
Objective—To evaluate bispectral index (BIS), spectral edge frequency 95% (SEF), and median frequency (MED) in relation to a visual analogue scale (VAS) as indicators of anesthetic depth for various concentrations of sevoflurane and isoflurane in pigs.
Procedure—Pigs were randomly allocated to 8 groups (4 pigs/group). An electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in each conscious pig. Pigs were then anesthetized by use of sevoflurane (n = 16) or isoflurane (16). Agents were administered in oxygen at minimum alveolar concentrations (MACs) of 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75 MAC in a randomized order. End-tidal sevoflurane and isoflurane concentrations were maintained for 30 minutes, after which an EEG was recorded for 5 minutes; BIS, SEF, and MED were then calculated. Anesthetic depth was evaluated by use of the VAS. Cardiovascular and EEG responses to nociceptive stimuli were evaluated for each anesthetic agent.
Results—BIS decreased significantly for the various concentrations of each anesthetic. At equivalent MACs, BIS values were significantly higher during sevoflurane-induced anesthesia than during isoflurane- induced anesthesia. Values of MED and SEF decreased significantly from basal values to 1 MAC of sevoflurane and isoflurane. For both agents, there was good correlation between VAS scores and BIS values and between VAS scores and SEF values.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—BIS was useful for predicting changes in anesthetic depth at clinical dosages of inhalant anesthetics. Values of BIS, SEF, and MED were significantly higher during anesthesia induced by administration of sevoflurane than during anesthesia induced by administration of isoflurance at equivalent MACs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:866–873)
Objective—To evaluate relationships among various techniques for monitoring anesthetic depth in sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery.
Procedure—Dogs were medicated with acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg, IM), buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg, IM), and atropine (0.04 mg/kg, IM). Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane. Cardiovascular and respiratory responses were monitored. Anesthetic depth was monitored by use of the bispectral index (BIS), and a proprietary index was used to monitor activity of the autonomic nervous system.
Results—A significant decrease in BIS was seen after induction but concurrent changes were not observed for the other techniques. The proprietary index increased significantly after intubation, but no changes were seen for the other techniques. No significant changes were detected during incision or when higher nociceptive stimuli were applied. We did not identify a correlation between BIS and the proprietary index, the proprietary index and hemodynamic variables, or the BIS and hemodynamic variables during induction and maintenance. A significant increase in the proprietary index and BIS was detected at the time of resumption of reflexes. During anesthetic recovery, a correlation was found between the proprietary index and BIS but not between hemodynamic variables and the other techniques.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A significant increase in the proprietary index, but not the BIS or hemodynamic variables, was detected during intubation. Anesthetic induction with sevoflurane did not prevent the sympathetic stimulus attributable to tracheal intubation. Monitoring of hemodynamic variables does not provide sufficient information to allow clinicians to evaluate stress during anesthetic recovery. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1128–1135)
Objective—To evaluate bispectral index (BIS) values in pigs during anesthesia maintained with sevoflurane- fentanyl or propofol-fentanyl as a predictor of changes in hemodynamic parameters and duration of recovery from anesthesia.
Procedure—Pigs were randomly allocated to undergo 1 of 2 anesthetic regimens. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (2 mg/kg, IV); 6 pigs were administered sevoflurane via inhalation (1 minimum alveolar concentration [MAC] at a fresh gas flow rate of 3 L/min; group I), and 6 were administered propofol (11 mg/kg/h, IV; group II). All pigs received fentanyl (2.5 mg/kg, IV, q 30 min). After abdominal surgery, pigs were allowed to recover from anesthesia. Cardiovascular variables and BIS values were recorded at intervals throughout the procedure; duration of recovery from anesthesia was noted.
Results—No correlation was established between arterial blood pressure and BIS and between heart rate and BIS. Mean BIS at discontinuation of administration of the anesthetic agent was greater in group-II pigs (65.2 ± 10.6 minutes) than in group-I pigs (55.8 ± 2.9 minutes). However, recovery from anesthesia was significantly longer in group II (59.80 ± 2.52 minutes) than in group I (9.80 ± 2.35 minutes).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In swine anesthetized with sevoflurane or propofol and undergoing abdominal surgery, the BIS value derived from an electroencephalogram at the end of anesthesia was not useful for predicting the speed of recovery from anesthesia. Moreover, BIS was not useful as a predictor of clinically important changes in arterial blood pressure and heart rate in those anesthetized pigs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:409–416)