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  • Author or Editor: Ludo J. Hellebrekers x
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Objective—To investigate the middle latency auditory evoked potential (MLAEP) in awake dogs and dogs anesthetized with 2 concentrations of sevoflurane.

Animals—10 adult Beagles.

Procedure—The MLAEP was recorded while dogs were awake and anesthetized with sevoflurane (end-tidal concentration, 2.7% or 3.5%). Three needle electrodes were inserted SC, and click stimuli were delivered biaurally. Signal acquisition, averaging, and analysis were performed by use of computer software developed in-house. Signals were recorded for 128 milliseconds, and the responses to 1,024 stimuli were averaged. Waveforms from 10 recordings in each dog were averaged, and latencies of peaks were measured. Data acquired for awake dogs and dogs anesthetized with high and low sevoflurane concentrations were compared statistically.

Results—Sevoflurane anesthesia attenuated the MLAEP so that only peaks P0, Na, and Pa could be identified. The MLAEP changes were maximal at the lower concentration of sevoflurane evaluated. The latencies of these peaks were significantly shorter in awake dogs, compared with values in anesthetized dogs. No difference in the peak latency was detected between the sevoflurane concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In terms of CNS responsiveness, the effects of anesthesia with sevoflurane are similar to those of anesthesia with isoflurane. Data suggest that sevoflurane is not the inhalant agent of choice in a research setting where electroencephalographic measurements are to be recorded during anesthesia. The depression of the MLAEP waveform by sevoflurane also suggests that the MLAEP is not a suitable tool with which to monitor anesthetic depth during sevoflurane anesthesia in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1156–1161)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine whether epidurally derived evoked potentials (EPs) can be used to reliably assess nociception and antinociception in ponies.

Animals—7 ponies.

Procedures—EPs and electromyograms (EMGs) from the quadriceps femoris muscles were recorded simultaneously, following electrical stimulation applied to the distal portion of the hind limb. The effect of increasing stimulus intensity, conduction velocities of the stimulated nerves, effect of epidurally applied methadone, and effect of systemically administered propofol were evaluated.

Results—In the EP and EMG waveforms, 2 distinct complexes, the EP N25 and P50 and the EMG P27 and N62, respectively, were identified. On the basis of their latency and calculated conduction velocities, the EP P50 and EMG N62 were considered to be related to nociception (AD-mediated). All complexes increased significantly in amplitude with increasing stimulus intensity and decreased significantly following epidural administration of methadone or systemic administration of propofol.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although the experimental setup allowed successful discrimination between tactile- and nociceptive-associated responses, the identified EPs, considered to reflect activity in the spinal cord, could not be definitively differentiated from activity in the lumbosacral epaxial musculature. Further research is required to refine measurement techniques to allow for discrimination between these 2 signals. Similar to other species, neurophysiologic variables such as EPs could potentially become a useful additional tool in quantifying nociception in equidae.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research