Objective—To evaluate the analytical agreement between blood lactate concentrations determined by use of an enzymatic-amperometric bedside system in capillary blood samples from the pinna and in jugular venous blood samples from dogs.
Procedures—For each dog, venous and capillary blood samples were obtained from a jugular vein and from the ear pinna (by use of a lancing device), respectively, following a randomized sequence of collection. Lactate concentrations in both types of samples were analyzed by use of an enzymatic-amperometric bedside system intended for lactate detection in capillary blood samples from humans that was previously validated in dogs. The Passing-Bablock regression analysis was used to compare venous and capillary blood lactate concentrations; the level of agreement was calculated by use of the Bland-Altman method.
Results—Jugular venous blood samples were collected without difficulty from all 53 dogs. A capillary blood sample was obtained from only 47 dogs. The correlation coefficient between lactate concentrations measured in venous and capillary blood samples was 0.58 (slope, 2.0 [95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 3.0]; intercept, −1.2 [95% confidence interval, −3.1 to 0.4]). The mean difference between methods was 0.72 mmol/L (95% confidence interval, 0.38 to 1.06) with limits of agreement of −1.55 to 2.99 mmol/L.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because of the lack of agreement between lactate concentrations determined in capillary and jugular venous blood samples, measurement of capillary blood lactate concentration in dogs performed with the technique used in the study does not appear to be a reliable alternative to jugular venous blood measurements.
Objective—To evaluate the diagnostic value of an implantable loop recorder (ILR) in dogs with unexplained syncope.
Design—Prospective case series.
Animals—12 dogs with recurrent unexplained syncope.
Procedures—An ILR was surgically inserted in a pocket created in the subcutaneous tissues of the left hemithorax of each dog. The ILRs were programmed for manual and automatic activation, and event analysis and programming were performed at 3-month intervals and after each syncopal episode.
Results—The ILR was manually activated in 7 of 12 dogs at least once within 45 to 218 days (median, 120 days) after implantation. Four dogs had syncopal episodes associated with sinus tachycardia followed by sinus bradycardia and asystolic pauses. Two dogs had ventricular tachycardia, and 1 dog had sinus node dysfunction with prolonged sinus arrest that coincided with loss of consciousness and falling. Four dogs had no additional syncopal episodes after implantation of the ILR. In the remaining dog, the owner was unable to activate the ILR during the only syncopal episode observed for that dog after ILR implantation. In all 12 dogs, analysis of ECG traces after automatic activation of recording revealed normal cardiac rhythms.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data gained after manual activation of an ILR provided valuable diagnostic and prognostic information in almost all dogs with unexplained syncopal episodes by confirming or disproving an association between syncope and arrhythmias. However, detection of disturbances in cardiac rhythm after automatic activation did not appear to improve the diagnostic value for an ILR implanted in dogs.
Objective—To determine whether dogs with renal failure have higher serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations than healthy dogs.
Animals—31 dogs with renal failure and 51 healthy dogs.
Procedures—Serum concentrations of creatinine and cardiac troponin I, urine specific gravity, and systolic arterial blood pressure were measured for all dogs. Dogs underwent a standardized physical examination, and any dog with evidence of cardiovascular disease or other nonrenal disease was excluded from final analyses. Dogs were considered to be in renal failure when the serum creatinine concentration was ≥ 3.0 mg/dL, urine specific gravity was between 1.007 and 1.030, and renal failure had been clinically diagnosed.
Results—Dogs with renal failure had significantly higher serum cTnI concentrations (median, 0.35 ng/mL) than did healthy dogs (0.20 ng/mL). The renal failure group also had a significantly higher median systolic blood pressure (156 mm Hg) than did healthy dogs (138 mm Hg), although serum cTnI concentration was not correlated with systolic blood pressure in dogs with renal failure. There was no significant difference in age between dogs with renal failure and healthy dogs, but dogs with renal failure had significantly higher serum creatinine concentration and lower urine specific gravity.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although dogs with renal failure did not have overt clinical signs of cardiac disease, they had high serum cTnI concentrations, which may have been associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease. The cause of the high serum cTnI concentration in these dogs requires additional investigation.