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- Author or Editor: Louis J. Perino x
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Objective—To determine the effects of florfenicol injection on the meat characteristics of the cervical muscles in cattle.
Animals—100 steers (mean weight, 380 kg).
Procedure—In 50 calves, florfenicol (25 ml, twice) was injected into the cervical muscles of 1 side of the neck, and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (25 ml, twice) was injected into the cervical muscles of the other side of the neck. In the remaining 50 calves, florfenicol was injected into the cervical muscles of 1 side of the neck, and nothing was injected into the cervical muscles of the other side of the neck. Animals were slaughtered 132 days later, and samples of the cervical muscles were submitted for histologic evaluation and measurement of shear forces.
Results—2 injection sites used in the present study had extensive lesions, and both of these were sites where florfenicol had been injected. However, histologic scores for the florfenicol injection sites were not significantly different from scores for the contralateral saline solution injection sites and uninjected control sites. In addition, shear force values were not significantly different between sites in which florfenicol had been injected and the contralateral sites.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that few reactions should be expected with injection of florfenicol into the cervical muscles in steers and that reactions that do occur will consist mainly of fibrosis and infiltration of adipose tissue. However, shear force values, a measure of tenderness of the meat, should not be affected. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:64–68)
Objective—To describe patterns of seroconversion to bovine coronavirus (BCV) and shedding of BCV from the respiratory tract in feedlot cattle.
Animals—1,074 calves in feedlots in Ohio, Texas, and Nebraska.
Procedure—Nasal swab specimens were obtained at time of arrival (day 0) and at various times during the initial 28 days after arrival at feedlots. Specimens were tested for BCV, using an antigen-capture ELISA. Serum samples were obtained at time of arrival and again 28 days after arrival; sera were analyzed for antibodies to BCV, using an antibody-detection ELISA.
Results—Samples from 12 groups of cattle entering 7 feedlots during a 3-year period revealed that 78 of 1,074 (7.3%) cattle were shedding BCV (range, 0 to 35.9% within specific groups). At time of arrival, 508 of 814 (62.4%) cattle had low (< 50) or undetectable BCV antibody titers. Seroconversion to BCV during the initial 28 days after arrival was detected in 473 of 814 (58%) cattle tested (range, 20.3 to 84.1% within specific groups). In cattle shedding BCV from the nasal passages, 49 of 68 (72.1%) seroconverted, and 472 of 746 (63.3%) cattle that were not shedding the virus seroconverted.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bovine coronavirus can be detected in populations of feedlot cattle in the form of viral shedding as well as seroconversion to the virus. Although only a few cattle were shedding the virus at the time of arrival at a feedlot, most of the cattle seroconverted to BCV by 28 days after arrival. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1057–1061)
Objective—To investigate eating and drinking behaviors and their association with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) and to evaluate methods of diagnosing BRDC.
Animals—170 newly arrived calves at a feedlot.
Procedure—Eating and drinking behaviors of calves were recorded at a feedlot. Calves with clinical signs of BRDC were removed from their pen and classified retrospectively as sick or not sick on the basis of results of physical and hematologic examinations. Pulmonary lesions of all calves were assessed at slaughter.
Results—Calves that were sick had significantly greater frequency and duration of drinking 4 to 5 days after arrival than calves that were not sick. Sick calves had significantly lower frequency and duration of eating and drinking 11 to 27 days after arrival but had significantly greater frequency of eating 28 to 57 days after arrival than calves that were not sick. Calves at slaughter that had a higher percentage of lung tissue with pneumonic lesions had significantly lower frequency and duration of eating 11 to 27 days after arrival but had significantly higher frequency and duration of eating 28 to 57 days after arrival. Agreement for calves being sick and having severe pulmonary lesions at slaughter was adequate. Agreement for calves being removed and having pulmonary lesions at slaughter was low.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Eating and drinking behaviors were associated with signs of BRDC, but there was not an obvious predictive association between signs of BRDC in calves and eating and drinking behaviors. Fair to poor agreement was observed between antemortem and postmortem disease classification. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1163–1168)
Objectives—To determine the effect of location for administration of clostridial vaccines on behavior, growth performance, and health of calves at a feedlot, the relative risk of calves developing an injection-site reaction or being misdiagnosed as having bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), and the percentage of subcutaneous injection-site reactions that were detectable on carcasses after the hides were removed.
Animal—170 newly arrived calves at a feedlot.
Procedure—Eating and drinking behaviors of calves during the initial 57 days after arrival were observed at a commercial feedlot, using an electronic monitoring system. Calves were assigned randomly to receive a clostridial vaccine (base of ear or neck). Data on reactions at the injection site were collected.
Results—Mean daily gain (MDG) for the initial 57 days did not differ significantly between treatments. Risk of being misdiagnosed as having BRDC was not associated with location for administration of vaccine. Calves vaccinated in the base of the ear were at higher risk of having an injection-site reaction at day 57 or at slaughter. Eighty-nine percent (95% confidence interval, 52 to 100%) of injection-site reactions in the neck could not be located on the carcasses after hides were removed. Calves vaccinated in the neck drank significantly fewer times per day during the first 57 days than calves vaccinated in the base of the ear.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Location for administration of a clostridial vaccine did not significantly affect health, growth performance, or eating behavior. Most subcutaneous injection-site reactions were not detectable after the hide was removed. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1169–1172)
Objective—To determine the association between respiratory tract infection with bovine coronavirus (BCV), treatment for respiratory tract disease, pulmonary lesions at slaughter, and average daily gain in cattle in feedlots.
Animals—837 calves in feedlots in Ohio and Texas.
Procedure—Nasal swab specimens were obtained from cattle at arrival in a feedlot (day 0) and at various times during the initial 28 days after arrival. Specimens were tested for BCV, using an antigencapture ELISA. Serum samples were obtained at arrival and again 28 days after arrival and tested for antibodies to BCV, using an antibody-detection ELISA. Information was collected regarding treatment for cattle with respiratory tract disease and average daily gain during the feeding period. Pulmonary lesions were evaluated at slaughter.
Results—Cattle shedding BCV from the nasal cavity and developing an antibody response against BCV were 1.6 times more likely to require treatment for respiratory tract disease than cattle that did not shed the virus or develop an immune response against BCV. Additionally, cattle that shed BCV from the nasal cavity were 2.2 times more likely to have pulmonary lesions at slaughter than cattle that did not shed the virus. The BCV shedding or seroconversion status did not affect average daily gain.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bovine coronavirus infects feedlot cattle and is associated with an increased risk for cattle developing respiratory tract disease and pulmonary lesions. Development of appropriate control measures could help reduce the incidence of respiratory tract disease. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1062–1066)