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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the efficacy of 4 cleaning protocols applied to endotracheal tubes (ETTs) collected from anesthetized dogs.

SAMPLE

100 ETTs (25 per protocol).

PROCEDURES

A 10-question survey designed to determine ETT reuse and cleaning practices was distributed via email to a sample of veterinary anesthesiologists. Informed by survey results, 4 ETT cleaning protocols were selected for use in a prospective clinical study. Dogs were intubated with sterile polyvinyl chloride ETTs. At extubation, each ETT was cultured for bacterial growth, randomly assigned to 1 of 4 protocols [water scrub (P1), detergent scrub (P2), detergent scrub and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) soak (P3), or detergent scrub and bleach soak (P4)], and cultured again after drying. Bacterial genera were identified using mass spectrometry and 16s rRNA sequencing. Proportions of ETTs exhibiting no post-cleaning growth were compared between protocols using the Fisher exact test with Bonferroni correction.

RESULTS

Half of survey respondents that reused ETTs did not sterilize them before reuse, cleaning methods varied widely, and no reported methods were evidence-based. After use, the number of ETTs exhibiting no post-cleaning bacterial growth were 15/25 (60%), 14/25 (56%), 20/25 (80%), and 17/25 (68%) for protocols P1, P2, P3, and P4, respectively. Pairwise comparisons did not reveal any statistically significant differences between protocols.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In small animal patients, some veterinary anesthesiologists reuse ETTs without sterilization and cleaning protocols vary widely. No differences between the studied protocols were identified. Further research is necessary to identify a safe, efficacious ETT cleaning protocol for use in small animal practice.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare results for initial body-mounted inertial sensor (BMIS) measurement of lameness in equids trotting in a straight line with definitive findings after full lameness evaluation.

ANIMALS

1,224 equids.

PROCEDURES

Lameness measured with BMIS equipment while trotting in a straight line was classified into categories of none, forelimb only, hind limb only, and 8 patterns of combined forelimb and hind limb lameness (CFHL). Definitive findings after full lameness evaluation were established in most horses and classified into types (no lameness, forelimb- or hind limb–only lameness, CFHL, or lameness not localized to the limbs). Observed proportions of lameness type in equids with definitive findings for each initial BMIS-assessed category were compared with hypothetical expected proportions through χ2 goodness-of-fit analysis.

RESULTS

The most common initial BMIS-assessed lameness category was CFHL (693/1,224 [56.6%]), but this was the least common definitive finding (94/ 862 [10.9%]). The observed frequency of no lameness after full lameness evaluation was greater than expected only when initial BMIS measurements indicated no lameness. The observed frequency of forelimb-only lameness was greater than expected when initially measured as forelimb-only lameness and for CFHL categories consistent with the diagonal movement principle of compensatory lameness. Observed frequency of hind limb–only lameness was greater than expected when initially measured as hind limb–only lameness and for CFHL categories consistent with the sagittal movement principle of compensatory lameness. Equids initially assessed as having no lameness had the highest (103/112 [92%]) and those assessed as CFHL pattern 7 (forelimb with contralateral hind limb impact-only lameness) had the lowest (36/66 [55%]) rates of definitive findings.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In equids, results of initial straight-line trotting evaluations with a BMIS system did not necessarily match definitive findings but may be useful in planning the remaining lameness evaluation.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize the biochemical, functional, and histopathologic changes associated with lomustine-induced liver injury in dogs.

ANIMALS

I0 healthy purpose-bred sexually intact female hounds.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were randomly assigned to receive lomustine (approx 75 mg/m2, PO, q 21 d for 5 doses) alone (n = 5) or with prednisone (approx 1.5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 12 weeks; 5). For each dog, a CBC, serum biochemical analysis, liver function testing, urinalysis, and ultrasonographic examination of the liver with acquisition of liver biopsy specimens were performed before and at predetermined times during and after lomustine administration. Results were compared between dogs that did and did not receive prednisone.

RESULTS

7 of the I0 dogs developed clinical signs of liver failure. For all dogs, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bile acid concentrations, and liver histologic score increased and hepatic reduced glutathione content decreased over time. Peak serum ALT (r = 0.79) and ALP (r = 0.90) activities and bile acid concentration (r = 0.68) were positively correlated with the final histologic score. Prednisone did not appear to have a protective effect on histologic score.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In dogs, liver enzyme activities, particularly ALT and ALP activities, should be closely monitored during lomustine treatment and acute increases in those activities may warrant discontinuation of lomustine to mitigate liver injury. Nonspecific ultrasonographic findings and abnormal increases in liver function tests were not detected until the onset of clinical liver failure. Glutathione depletion may have a role in lomustine-induced hepatopathy and warrants further investigation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research