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  • Author or Editor: Lori S. Waddell x
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Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors associated with development of pyothorax in cats, assess survival rates for cats that are treated, determine prognostic indicators, and determine recurrence rates.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—80 cats with pyothorax and 212 control cats.

Procedure—History; month of evaluation; physical examination findings; results of hematologic, serum biochemical, and retrovirus testing; radiographic findings; outcome; recurrence rate; and necropsy findings were recorded. For control cats, age, sex, breed, indoor versus outdoor status, vaccination history, and single- versus multi-cat household status were recorded.

Results—Cats from multi-cat households were 3.8 times as likely (95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 8.2) to develop pyothorax, compared with cats from singlecat households. Indoor or outdoor status was not a risk factor. Cats with pyothorax were significantly younger (mean, 3.83 ± 3.43 years) than controls (mean, 5.62 ± 5.27 years). Nonsurvivors had significantly lower heart rates than survivors. Hypersalivation was significantly more common in nonsurvivors (11/39; 26.8%) than survivors (1/39; 3%). Overall, 48.8% (39/80) of cats survived. When cats that were euthanatized without treatment were excluded from analyses, the survival rate was 66.1% (39/59). Pyothorax recurred in 1 of 17 cats for which follow-up information was obtained.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats with pyothorax that received treatment had a fair to good prognosis, with low recurrence rates in survivors. Hypersalivation and low heart rate were associated with worse clinical outcome. Cats with pyothorax were likely to come from multi-cat households. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:819–824)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical and laboratory findings associated with protein-losing enteropathy, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia in Yorkshire Terriers.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—5 purebred or crossbred Yorkshire Terriers with protein-losing enteropathy, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for dogs with protein-losing enteropathy, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia.

Results—Of 8 dogs with these signs, 5 had Yorkshire Terrier breeding. Common findings were diarrhea, abdominal effusion, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, hypocalcemia (ionized calcium), hypomagnesemia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypocholesterolemia, and increased serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Yorkshire Terriers are at increased risk for development of protein-losing enteropathy with hypomagnesemia and decreased ionized calcium concentration. Hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia may have a related pathogenesis involving intestinal loss, malabsorption, and abnormalities of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Serum electrolyte replacement may be required to avoid neurologic and metabolic problems. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217: 703–706)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify dogs with anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) screens submitted, determine whether detected concentrations of the anticoagulants correlated with severity of clinical signs for dogs with positive results on AR screens, and identify the most common disease processes present and the prognosis for those with negative AR screens.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—123 dogs.

Procedures—History, signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, PCV, total solids concentration, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet count, AR concentrations, duration of hospitalization, blood products administered, final diagnosis, and outcome were recorded from medical records of dogs that underwent AR toxicology screenings.

Results—75 of 123 (60.9%) dogs tested positive for AR. Dogs tested positive for brodifacoum, diphacinone (also called diphenadione), and chlorophacinone. Dogs with positive AR screenings weighed significantly less, received significantly more fresh frozen plasma, had significantly longer initial prothrombin time, and were significantly more likely to survive, compared with those with negative screens. Anticoagulant rodenticide concentrations ranged from trace amounts to 1,120 parts per billion and were not correlated with any recorded parameter. The most common conditions diagnosed in the 48 dogs with negative screens included neoplasia in 15 (31.3%), immune-mediated disease in 7 (14.6%), and gastrointestinal bleeding in 5 (10.4%) dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—AR concentrations were not correlated with severity of clinical signs or the degree of prolongation of coagulation times in this series of patients. Patients with severe coagulopathies but negative results of AR screening had a poor prognosis, with neoplasia as the most common diagnosis. Anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication had the best prognosis, with a survival rate of 98.7% in this study.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association