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  • Author or Editor: Lori L. Ludwig x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome of dogs and cats with generalized peritonitis treated by means of closed-suction drainage.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—30 dogs and 10 cats with generalized peritonitis.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information on signalment, clinicopathologic abnormalities, contamination source, results of microbial culture, surgical procedure performed, postoperative management, complications, and outcome was obtained.

Results—The gastrointestinal tract was the most common source of contamination. Abdominal fluid collected from 34 patients at the time of surgery was submitted for bacterial culture; results were positive for 28 (82%). The most commonly isolated organism was Escherichia coli. Postoperative complications included anemia (n = 21), hypoproteinemia (21), vomiting (9), edema (7), and diarrhea (5). Total solids concentration did not decrease during the first 48 hours after surgery, and all drains remained functional until removal. Twenty-eight patients survived to the time of discharge; 8 of the 12 animals that died did so within 18 hours after surgery. The only factor significantly different between patients that survived and patients that died was postoperative systolic blood pressure. Factors that were not significantly associated with outcome included detection of bacteria in the abdominal fluid, number of organisms cultured from the abdominal fluid, selection of antimicrobials for empiric treatment, and source of contamination.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that closed-suction drainage may be a useful method for treating generalized peritonitis in dogs and cats. No clinically important complications were associated with their use. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:789–794)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate completeness of excision and clinical outcome in dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) excised with a lateral margin of 2 cm and a deep margin of 1 fascial plane.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—16 client-owned dogs with 1 or more cutaneous MCTs.

Procedure—Excision of MCTs was performed with a 2-cm lateral margin and a deep margin of 1 fascial plane. Histologic tumor grading was performed; surgical margins were categorized as complete or incomplete. Follow-up information was obtained via repeat examination of the dogs by veterinarians or client-completed questionnaires.

Results—4 grade I and 19 grade II cutaneous MCTs were evaluated. Overall, 21 (91%) MCTs were completely excised; 2 grade II tumors had foci of mast cells at the 2-cm margin. Two dogs received adjunctive treatments following surgery. Follow-up information was available for all dogs (median follow-up period, 379 days; range, 51 to 538 days); no local recurrence was detected during this time. De novo MCTs were detected in 3 of 16 dogs at 37, 54, and 154 days after surgery. Via Kaplan-Meier analysis, median survival time and disease-free interval were both > 538 days (medians not yet reached). No prognostic variables were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Excision with a 2-cm lateral margin and a deep margin of 1 fascial plane may result in satisfactory excision of grades I and II MCTs in dogs, with recurrence rates similar to those reported previously. Use of these margins may minimize complications associated with larger local tumor resection.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify preoperative predictors of survival and assess intraoperative and postoperative complications and survival rates for dogs undergoing adrenalectomy.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—41 dogs that underwent adrenalectomy.

Procedures—Records were reviewed to collect data regarding preoperative variables. Intraoperative and postoperative variables were also recorded. Variables were evaluated for association with survival duration via log-rank analysis for categoric variables and by use of Cox proportional hazards. Median survival times were calculated by use of Kaplan-Meier life table analysis.

Results—9 (22.0%) dogs did not survive to discharge. Intraoperative mortality rate was 4.8%. Overall Kaplan-Meier median survival time was 690 days. Variables significantly associated with shorter survival times included preoperative weakness or lethargy, thrombocytopenia, increased BUN concentration, increased partial thromboplastin time (PTT), increased aspartate transaminase (AST) activity, hypokalemia, intraoperative hemorrhage, and concurrent nephrectomy. Postoperative variables significantly associated with shorter survival times included pancreatitis and renal failure. In multivariate analysis, preoperative hypokalemia, preoperative increased BUN concentration, and concurrent nephrectomy were significantly associated with a shorter survival time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A high mortality rate was associated with adrenalectomy in dogs; however, those that survived until discharge from a hospital had long survival times. Preoperative factors associated with a shorter survival time were weakness or lethargy, thrombocytopenia, increased BUN concentration, increased PTT, increased AST activity, and hypokalemia. Studies are needed to evaluate how treatment for these factors may affect or change outcome after adrenalectomy. Dogs with adrenal masses that require concurrent nephrectomy and cause intraoperative hemorrhage have a guarded prognosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether neoplastic mast cells extended into tissue 1, 2, or 3 cm laterally or deeper than 1 fascial plane from the visible edge of cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—21 client-owned dogs with ≥ 1 cutaneous MCT.

Procedures—After preparation for surgery, each dog's skin was marked 1, 2, and 3 cm from the tumor edge at 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°. At each 3-cm mark, deep fascia was exposed and sutured to the skin; the tumor was excised in routine fashion and fixed in formalin. Tumors were graded; margins were examined histologically for neoplastic mast cells.

Results—23 cutaneous MCTs in 21 dogs were included in this study. Fifteen (65%) tumors were located on the trunk, 5 (22%) on the hind limbs, and 3 (13%) on the head and neck. There were 3 (13%) grade-I and 20 (87%) grade-II tumors. All grade-I tumors were completely excised at all margins. Seventy-five percent of the grade-II tumors were completely excised at the 1- cm margin, and 100% were completely excised at the 2-cm margin. Two grade-II MCTs located on the hind limbs of dogs were excised with a complete but close (within 1 mm) deep margin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a 2-cm lateral margin and a deep margin of 1 fascial plane appear to be adequate for complete excision of grade-I and -II MCTs in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:236–240)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess use of thoracoscopy to determine causes of pleural effusion in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—15 dogs and 3 cats with pleural effusion.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed from 1998 to 2001 for dogs and cats that had exploratory thoracoscopy, biopsy, and histologic analysis to determine the etiology of pleural effusion. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Surgical biopsy specimens were evaluated for quantity and quality for providing a histologic diagnosis.

Results—Biopsy specimens were deemed adequate in quantity and quality to render a histologic diagnosis in all animals. Etiology of the effusion was neoplasia in 8 animals and non-neoplastic pleuritis in 10 animals. Median survival time of animals with neoplasia was 15 days, whereas those with inflammatory diseases had median survival time of > 785 days. Postoperative pneumothorax was encountered in 2 animals subsequent to pulmonary biopsy. No other major complications were recorded.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Thoracoscopy is a diagnostic option that provides excellent viewing of intrathoracic structures and adequate biopsy specimens with minimal complications. This technique provides a less invasive alternative to thoracotomy for evaluating the etiology of pleural effusion. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:990–994)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association