Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 11 items for

  • Author or Editor: Lori A. Koehler x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether breed, age, sex, or reproductive status (ie, neutered versus sexually intact) was associated with the apparent increase in prevalence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths and the decrease in prevalence of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) uroliths in cats over time.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—Case cats consisted of cats with CaOx (n = 7,895) or MAP (7,334) uroliths evaluated at the Minnesota Urolith Center between 1981 and 1997. Control cats consisted of cats without urinary tract disease admitted to veterinary teaching hospitals in the United States and Canada during the same period (150,482).

Procedure—Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed.

Results—British Shorthair, Exotic Shorthair, Foreign Shorthair, Havana Brown, Himalayan, Persian, Ragdoll, and Scottish Fold cats had an increased risk of developing CaOx uroliths, as did male cats and neutered cats. Chartreux, domestic shorthair, Foreign Shorthair, Himalayan, Oriental Shorthair, and Ragdoll cats had an increased risk of developing MAP uroliths, as did female cats and neutered cats. Cats with CaOx uroliths were significantly older than cats with MAP uroliths.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that changes in breed, age, sex, or reproductive status did not contribute to the apparent reciprocal relationship between prevalences of CaOx and MAP uroliths in cats during a 17-year period. However, cats of particular breeds, ages, sex, and reproductive status had an increased risk of developing CaOx and MAP uroliths. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:520–525)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether storage in neutral-buffered 10% formalin in vitro has any effect on the composition of biogenic minerals of canine and feline uroliths.

Design—Prospective in vitro study.

Sample Population—Canine and feline uroliths submitted to the Minnesota Urolith Center from 34 dogs and 27 cats.

Procedures—Submissions from each dog or cat consisted of multiple uroliths of a single mineral type. After retrieval from the urinary tract, none of the uroliths had been placed in a preservative before submission. Evaluated uroliths were exclusively composed of the following: only struvite (uroliths from 5 dogs and 5 cats), calcium oxalate (5 dogs and 5 cats), calcium phosphate apatite (5 dogs and 5 cats), cystine (5 dogs and 5 cats), ammonium urate (5 dogs and 5 cats), or silica (5 dogs). One urolith from each dog or cat was quantitatively analyzed by polarized light microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, or both. Another urolith from the same animal was immersed in 1 mL of neutral-buffered 10% formalin for 48 hours at room temperature (22.5°C). Uroliths exposed to formalin were then air-dried for 30 minutes, and the analysis was repeated.

Results—After exposure to formalin, a portion of every struvite urolith was transformed into newberyite. This was not observed with any other urolith mineral type. Quantitative mineral analysis of nonstruvite uroliths revealed no detectable change in mineral composition. However, 3 of 10 ammonium urate uroliths dissolved when placed in formalin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—To avoid misdiagnosis of mineral composition, uroliths should not be immersed in formalin prior to analysis.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether nephrolithiasis was associated with an increase in mortality rate or in the rate of disease progression in cats with naturally occurring stage 2 (mild) or 3 (moderate) chronic kidney disease.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—14 cats with stage 2 (mild) or 3 (moderate) chronic kidney disease (7 with nephroliths and 7 without).

Procedures—All cats were evaluated every 3 months for up to 24 months. Possible associations between nephrolithiasis and clinicopathologic abnormalities, incidence of uremic crises, death secondary to renal causes, and death secondary to any cause were evaluated.

Results—There were no clinically important differences in biochemical, hematologic, or urinalysis variables between cats with and without nephroliths at baseline or after 12 and 24 months of monitoring. No associations were detected between nephrolithiasis and rate of disease progression, incidence of uremic crises, or death.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in cats with mild or moderate chronic kidney disease, nephrolithiasis was not associated with an increase in mortality rate or in the rate of disease progression. Findings support recommendations that cats with severe kidney disease and nephrolithiasis be managed without surgery.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that breed, age, sex, body condition, and environment are risk factors for development of calcium oxalate uroliths in dogs.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—1,074 dogs that formed calcium oxalate uroliths and 1,724 control dogs that did not have uroliths.

Procedure—A validated multiple-choice questionnaire was designed to collect information from veterinarians and owners within 1 year of the date of urolith detection concerning signalment and environment of the dogs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios to assess whether breed, age, sex, body condition, and environment were risk factors for calcium oxalate urolith formation.

Results—Middle-aged (8- to 12-year-old) castrated male dogs had increased risk for formation of calcium oxalate uroliths. Urolith formation was also associated with increasing age. Dogs of certain breeds, including Miniature and Standard Schnauzer, Lhasa Apso, Yorkshire Terrier, Bichon Frise, Shih Tzu, and Miniature and Toy Poodle, had increased risk for developing calcium oxalate uroliths. Overweight dogs also had increased risk.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Knowledge of patient and environmental risk factors for development of calcium oxalate uroliths may facilitate development of surveillance strategies that result in earlier detection of this disease. Modification of environmental factors and body weight may minimize calcium oxalate urolith formation and recurrence. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:515–519)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify dietary factors associated with the increase in occurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths and the decrease in occurrence of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) uroliths in cats.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—173 cats with CaOx uroliths, 290 cats with MAP uroliths, and 827 cats without any urinary tract diseases.

Procedure—Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed.

Results—Cats fed diets low in sodium or potassium or formulated to maximize urine acidity had an increased risk of developing CaOx uroliths but a decreased risk of developing MAP uroliths. Additionally, compared with the lowest contents, diets with the highest moisture or protein contents and with moderate magnesium, phosphorus, or calcium contents were associated with decreased risk of CaOx urolith formation. In contrast, diets with moderate fat or carbohydrate contents were associated with increased risk of CaOx urolith formation. Diets with the highest magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, chloride, or fiber contents and moderate protein content were associated with increased risk of MAP urolith formation. On the other hand, diets with the highest fat content were associated with decreased risk of MAP urolith formation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that diets formulated to contain higher protein, sodium, potassium, moisture, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium contents and with decreased urine acidifying potential may minimize formation of CaOx uroliths in cats. Diets formulated to contain higher fat content and lower protein and potassium contents and with increased urine acidifying potential may minimize formation of MAP uroliths. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1228–1237)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify factors in dry diets associated with the occurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in dogs.

Animals—600 dogs with CaOx uroliths and 898 dogs without urinary tract diseases.

Procedure—Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed.

Results—Compared with diets with the highest concentrations of sodium, dry diets with the lowest concentrations of sodium, phosphorus, calcium, chloride, protein, magnesium, or potassium were linearly associated with increased risk of CaOx urolith formation. Significant nonlinear associations between increased occurrence of CaOx uroliths and urine acidifying potential and low moisture content were observed. Significant nonlinear associations between decreased occurrence of CaOx uroliths and carbohydrate and fiber contents were observed. A significant association between the occurrence of CaOx uroliths and dietary fat was not observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that dry diets formulated to contain high concentrations of protein, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride may minimize formation of CaOx uroliths. In addition, comparison of risk and protective factors of various diet ingredients fed to dogs with CaOx uroliths suggests that although similar findings were observed in canned and dry formulations, in general, greater risk is associated with dry formulations. However, before these hypotheses about dietary modifications are adopted by food manufacturers, they must be investigated by use of appropriately designed clinical studies of dogs with CaOx urolithiasis. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:330–337)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify dietary factors in commercially available canned foods associated with the development of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in dogs.

Animals—117 dogs with CaOx uroliths and 174 dogs without urinary tract disease.

Procedure—Case dogs were those that developed CaOx uroliths submitted to the Minnesota Urolith Center for quantitative analysis between 1990 and 1992 while fed a commercially available canned diet. Control dogs were those without urinary tract disease evaluated at the same veterinary hospital just prior to or immediately after each case dog. A content-validated multiple-choice questionnaire was mailed to each owner of case and control dogs with the permission of the primary care veterinarian. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions for each dietary component were performed to test the hypothesis that a given factor was associated with CaOx urolith formation.

Results—Canned foods with the highest amount of protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, or moisture were associated with a decreased risk of CaOx urolith formation, compared with diets with the lowest amounts. In contrast, canned diets with the highest amount of carbohydrate were associated with an increased risk of CaOx urolith formation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Feeding canned diets formulated to contain high amounts of protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and moisture and a low amount of carbohydrate may minimize the risk of CaOx urolith formation in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:163–169)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a renal diet modified in protein, phosphorus, sodium, and lipid content was superior to an adult maintenance diet in minimizing uremic episodes and mortality rate in cats with stage 2 or 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Design—Double-masked, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

Animals—45 client-owned cats with spontaneous stage 2 or 3 CKD.

Procedures—Cats were randomly assigned to an adult maintenance diet (n = 23 cats) or a renal diet (22) and evaluated trimonthly for up to 24 months. Efficacy of the renal diet, compared with the maintenance diet, in minimizing uremia, renal-related deaths, and all causes of death was evaluated.

Results—Serum urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly lower and blood bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in the renal diet group at baseline and during the 12- and 24-month intervals. Significant differences were not detected in body weight; Hct; urine protein-to-creatinine ratio; and serum creatinine, potassium, calcium, and parathyroid hormone concentrations. A significantly greater percentage of cats fed the maintenance diet had uremic episodes (26%), compared with cats fed the renal diet (0%). A significant reduction in renal-related deaths but not all causes of death was detected in cats fed the renal diet.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The renal diet evaluated in this study was superior to an adult maintenance diet in minimizing uremic episodes and renalrelated deaths in cats with spontaneous stage 2 or 3 CKD.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify demographic or signalment factors associated with calcium carbonate urolith formation in goats.

Design—Retrospective case series and case-control study.

Animals—354 goats with calcium carbonate uroliths (case animals) and 16,366 goats without urinary tract disease (control animals).

Procedures—Medical records of the Minnesota Urolith Center were reviewed to identify case goats for which samples were submitted between January 1, 1984, and December 31, 2012. Control goats evaluated at US veterinary teaching hospitals in the same time period were identified by searching Veterinary Medical Database records. Age, breed, sex, reproductive status, geographic location, season, and anatomic location of collected uroliths were analyzed to identify risk or protective factors associated with calcium carbonate urolithiasis.

Results—Nigerian dwarf goats had higher odds of developing calcium carbonate uroliths than did Pygmy goats (reference group). Several breeds had lower odds of this finding, compared with Pygmy goats; odds were lowest for mixed, Anglo-Nubian, and Toggenburg breeds. Breeds of African origin (Pygmy, Nigerian Dwarf, and Boer) comprised 146 of 275 (53%) case goats with data available. Goats of African descent had a higher risk of developing calcium carbonate uroliths than did goats of non-African descent (reference group). Males and neutered goats had higher odds of calcium carbonate urolithiasis, compared with females and sexually intact goats, respectively. Age category, geographic location, and season were associated with detection of calcium carbonate uroliths.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Goats with calcium carbonate uroliths were typically neutered males, > 1 year of age, and of African descent. This study identified factors associated with calcium carbonate urolithiasis in goats; however, these associations do not allow conclusions regarding cause-and-effect relationships.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine frequency of and interval until recurrence after initial ammonium urate, calcium oxalate, and struvite uroliths in cats and whether breed, age, or sex was associated with increased risk for urolith recurrence.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—4,435 cats with recurrent uroliths.

Procedures—To identify recurrence of uroliths in cats for which uroliths were submitted for analysis at the Minnesota Urolith Center in 1998, the facility's database was searched for urolith resubmissions from the same cats between 1998 and 2003. Risk factors and differences in mean interval until recurrence were assessed.

Results—Of 221 cats with ammonium urate uroliths in 1998, 29 (13.1%) had a first and 9 (4.1%) had a second recurrence. Mean interval until recurrence was 22 and 43 months for the first and second recurrence, respectively. Of 2,393 cats with calcium oxalate uroliths in 1998, 169 (7.1%) had a first, 15 (0.6%) had a second, and 2 (0.1%) had a third recurrence. Mean interval until recurrence was 25, 38, and 48 months for the first, second, and third recurrence, respectively. Of 1,821 cats with struvite uroliths in 1998, 49 (2.7%) had a first and 3 (0.2%) had a second recurrence. Mean interval until recurrence was 29 months for first and 40 months for second recurrences.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results provided insights into the frequency of urolith recurrence in cats. Because some uroliths associated with recurrent episodes probably were not submitted to our facility, our data likely represented an underestimation of the actual recurrence rate.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association