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  • Author or Editor: Loretta J. Bubenik x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate chondrocyte death in canine articular cartilage exposed in vitro to bupivacaine with and without methylparaben and to compare viability for cartilage with intact or mechanically debrided surfaces.

Sample Population—Both glenohumeral joints from 10 adult canine cadavers.

Procedures—10 osteochondral cores were harvested from each of the 20 humeral heads; synovium and 1 core from each joint were examined to verify joint health, and the other 9 cores were exposed to canine chondrocyte culture medium (CCCM), a 0.5% solution of bupivacaine, or 0.5% solution of bupivacaine with methylparaben for 5, 15, or 30 minutes.

Results—For the superficial zone of surface-intact chondrocytes, bupivacaine with methylparaben caused a significantly higher percentage of chondrocyte death at 5 minutes (47.7%) than did bupivacaine (23.6%) or CCCM (25.4%). Bupivacaine (53.8%) and bupivacaine with methylparaben (62.5%) caused a significantly higher percentage of chondrocyte death at 30 minutes than did CCCM (20.0%). For the superficial zone of chondrocytes with debrided surfaces, bupivacaine with methylparaben caused a significantly higher percentage of chondrocyte death at 30 minutes (59%) than it did at 5 minutes (37.7%). Bupivacaine with methylparaben caused a significantly higher percentage of chondrocyte death at 30 minutes (59.0%) than did CCCM (28.9%). For middle and deep zones of chondrocytes, treatment solution and surface debridement had minimal effects on percentage of chondrocyte death.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bupivacaine and bupivacaine with methylparaben were cytotoxic to canine articular chondrocytes in vitro. Intra-articular administration of bupivacaine is not recommended for clinical use until additional studies are conducted.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine frequency of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in catheterized dogs that had intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) or disease other than IVDD and compare bacterial culture and susceptibility testing results for catheterized and noncatheterized dogs with UTIs.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—147 catheterized dogs (105 with IVDD and 42 with other diseases) and 99 noncatheterized dogs with UTIs.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, history, clinical problem, duration of urinary tract catheterization, administration of drugs, and urine bacterial culture and susceptibility testing results.

Results—Forty-two percent (44/105) of dogs with IVDD and 55% (23/42) of dogs with other diseases had UTIs; this difference was not significant. For catheterized dogs, the odds of UTI were increased by 20% for each year increase in age, 27% for each day increase in duration of catheterization, and 454% with antimicrobial administration. Escherichia coli and Proteus spp were more frequently isolated from noncatheterized dogs, whereas Enterobacter spp and Staphylococcus spp were more frequently isolated from catheterized dogs. There was no significant difference in frequency of 1, 2, or 3 isolates between groups. Proportions of antimicrobials to which the most frequently isolated bacteria were resistant were not significantly different between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that urinary tract catheterization is a reasonable alternative for management of dogs with urinary bladder dysfunction, but that duration of catheterization should be minimized and indiscriminate antimicrobial administration to dogs with indwelling urinary catheters should be avoided.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association