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  • Author or Editor: Lola C. Hudson x
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To examine shedding of cell-free and cell-associated feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in semen of domestic cats during acute infection.


7 specific-pathogen-free sexually intact male cats.


6 cats were inoculated IV with 5 × 106 50% tissue culture infective doses of FIV-NCSU1, and 1 cat served as an uninfected (control) cat. Infection was confirmed in the 6 cats. Periodically for up to 16 weeks after inoculation, cats were anesthetized and ejaculates obtained by use of electroejaculation. Virus was isolated from filtered seminal plasma and washed seminal cells by co-cultivation with a feline CD4+ T-cell line. Seminal cell lysates were also examined for a 582-base pair segment of FIV gag provirus DNA, using a nested polymerase chain reaction amplification.


During the acute phase of FIV infection, virus was evident in semen of 5 inoculated cats. Five cats had virus-positive seminal plasma and 3 had virus-positive cellular constituents during the study. Virus was isolated from 8/22 (36%) seminal plasma samples and 2/17 (18%) seminal cell specimens. Provirus DNA was detected in 5/24 (21%) seminal cell lysates. Cell-free virus was isolated as early as 6 weeks after inoculation, whereas cell-associated virus was isolated as early as 12 weeks after inoculation. Provirus DNA was detected in seminal cells from one cat as early as 1 week after inoculation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Cell-free and cell-associated FIV are shed in semen of cats early during the course of infection. Samples obtained before seroconversion may contain virus. Virus shedding in ejaculates varies between and within cats during acute infection. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:211-215.)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine whether muscle-sparing laryngoplasty results in fewer changes in swallowing function compared to standard surgical treatment for laryngeal paralysis.


12 clinically normal sexually intact male Beagles.


Group A dogs (n = 4) had a standard approach to the larynx, with left arytenoid cartilage lateralization. Group B dogs (n = 4) had a muscle-sparing laryngoplasty performed with the thyropharyngeus muscle fibers bluntly separated, and the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle spared. Pre- and 24-hour postoperative fluoroscopic swallowing studies were performed and graded. Larynges were harvested after humane euthanasia, and glottic area was measured. Group C dogs (n = 4) acted as controls, with surgical dissection ending lateral to the thyropharyngeus muscle, arytenoid lateralization not performed, and the dogs not euthanized. The study was performed between October 15, 2011 and May 15, 2021.


Changes in pharyngeal and upper esophageal sphincter function were not detected in any group. There was no difference in glottic area between treatment groups. Aspiration of liquid was not a consistent finding. Two dogs in each treatment group developed moderate to severe cervical esophageal paresis. This did not occur in control dogs.


We found no evidence to support our hypothesis that muscle-sparing laryngoplasty results in less severe changes in swallowing function compared to a standard technique. The cervical esophageal paresis identified in both treatment groups could increase the risk of postoperative aspiration pneumonia in dogs treated for laryngeal paralysis via a lateral approach to the larynx. Further study to determine the frequency, cause, and duration of esophageal dysfunction is warranted.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research