Objective—To characterize serum biochemical abnormalities in goats with uroliths.
Design—Retrospective case-control series.
Animals—107 male goats with uroliths and 94 male goats with various nonrenal diseases (controls).
Procedures—For male goats, results of serum biochemical analyses collected from 1992 through 2003 were retrieved from computerized records, as were signalment, clinical diagnoses, and discharge status. Results of analyses for BUN, creatinine, phosphorus, calcium, Na, K, Cl, total CO2, anion gap, and glucose were compared between goats with uroliths and control goats.
Results—Goats with uroliths had higher mean BUN, creatinine, total CO2, K, and glucose concentrations and lower mean phosphorus, Na, and Cl concentrations than control goats, with no difference in mean calcium concentration and anion gap. Goats with uroliths had higher frequency of azotemia, hypophosphatemia, hypochloridemia, and increased total CO2 and lower frequency of decreased total CO2 than control goats. Urolithiasis occurred more frequently in castrated males than in sexually intact males and in dwarf African breeds than in other breeds.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Goats with uroliths often had hypophosphatemia at admission. Hypochloridemic metabolic alkalosis was the most common acid-base disorder. Rupture in the urinary tract system was associated with increased prevalence of hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. Clinicians should be aware of these abnormalities when determining fluid therapy.
Objective—To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a single injection of tulathromycin, compared with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution-treated control calves, for treatment of induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in calves.
Animals—30 Holstein bull calves ranging from 5 to 6 months old and 75 to 200 kg (165 to 440 lb) with no history of Moraxella bovis infections, no history of M bovis vaccination, and negative results for M bovis on 3 consecutive ocular bacterial cultures.
Procedures—Both eyes of each calf were infected with 1 X 1010 colony-forming units of piliated M bovis for 3 consecutive days prior to the trial. On day 0, ocular lesion scores were determined for each calf and the calves were weighed and assigned to a treatment (2.5 mg/kg [1.14 mg/lb] of body weight, SC) or control group according to a stratified random allocation based on weight and lesion score. Eyes were stained with fluorescein and photographed daily to record healing. Eyes were evaluated bacteriologically for M bovis on days 0 to 6 and at 3-day intervals thereafter.
Results—Median time to ulcer resolution in calves treated with tulathromycin was 9.1 days. More than 50% of control calves still had ulcers at the end of the trial (21 days). Moraxella sp was isolated less often from the eyes of treated calves than from the control calves. By day 10, the treated calves had lower ocular lesion scores than control calves.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A single dose of tulathromycin (SC) was an effective treatment of calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. The long serum half-life of tulathromycin, along with the results of this trial, suggests that tulathromycin may be a rational choice as a single-injection treatment for infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.
Objective—To determine the immunogenicity of a
Moraxella bovis cytolysin-enriched vaccine for prevention
of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK).
Animals—104 mixed-breed beef calves ranging
between 4 and 8 months of age.
Procedure—Vaccines were prepared by the diafiltration
of broth culture supernatant from hemolytic
M bovisor or sterile media. The diafiltered retentate was
combined with Quil A adjuvant. Calves were randomly
assigned to receive either the cytolysin vaccine
(n = 35) or, as controls, adjuvant (35) or saline (0.9%
NaCl) solution (34). Eyes of all calves were examined
weekly for signs of IBK for 15 weeks. Calves that developed
severe IBK were treated SC with florfenicol.
Results—Cytolysin vaccine contained 4 proteins with
molecular masses ranging between 65 and 90 kd.
Cytolysin-vaccinated calves had fewer instances of
IBK than control calves. The time of onset of corneal
lesions in cytolysin-vaccinated calves that developed
IBK was delayed, compared with that of calves in
either control group. The cytolysin-Quil A vaccine contained
endotoxin, but calves did not have clinical signs
of illness after vaccination.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Calves that
were vaccinated with a cytolysin-enriched vaccine had
some resistance to IBK. Vaccines containing concentrated
diafiltered M bovis cytolysin could protect beef
calves against IBK. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:136–142)
Objective—To identify the Moraxella bovis cytotoxin
Procedure—Hemolytic and nonhemolytic strains of
M bovis were compared by use of western blotting to
identify proteins unique to hemolytic strains.
Oligonucleotide primers, designed on the basis of
amino acid sequences of 2 tryptic peptides derived
from 1 such protein and conserved regions of the C
and B genes from members of the repeats in the
structural toxin (RTX) family of bacterial toxins, were
used to amplify cytotoxin-specific genes from M
bovis genomic DNA. Recombinant proteins were
expressed, and antisera against these proteins were
produced in rabbits.
Results—Several proteins ranging in molecular mass
from 55 to 75 kd were unique to the hemolytic strain.
An open reading frame encoding a 927-amino acid protein
with a predicted molecular mass of 98.8 kd was
amplified from M bovis genomic DNA. The deduced
amino acid sequence encoded by this open reading
frame was homologous to RTX toxins. Antisera against
the recombinant carboxy terminus encoded by this
open reading frame neutralized hemolytic and cytolytic
activities of native M bovis cytotoxin.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A gene was
identified in M bovis that encodes a protein with
sequence homology to other RTX toxins. Results of
cytotoxin neutralization assays support the hypothesis
that M bovis cytotoxin is encoded by this gene and
belongs in the RTX family of bacterial exoproteins.
Identification of this gene and expression of recombinant
cytotoxin could facilitate the development of
improved vaccines against infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.
(Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1222–1228)
Objectives—To compare stability, antigenicity, and
aggregation characteristics of Moraxella bovis
cytolysins among isolates from geographically diverse
Study Population—8 isolates of M bovis.
Procedure—Filter-sterilized broth culture supernatants
of M bovis were concentrated, diafiltered, and
chromatographed. The endotoxin and cytolysin activities
in samples were measured. Chromatographed
cytolysins of M bovis were examined by immunoblotting.
Hemolytic and leukotoxic activities were measured
from samples collected at each step of purification
and before and after storage. Hemolysis was measured
directly by use of washed bovine erythrocyte
targets. Leukotoxicity was measured by use of a 51Cr
Results—Cytolysin was retained by a filter with 100-kd nominal molecular weight limit. Hemolytic activity,
leukotoxic activity, and endotoxin were eluted together
in void volume of a gel-filtration column (molecular
mass exclusion limit = 4 × 107 d). Gel-column chromatographed
diafiltered retentate had the greatest
specific cytolytic activity and the highest endotoxinto-
protein ratio. Frozen diafiltered retentate(–80°C, 4
months) was cytolytic after thawing. Immunoblots of
gel-column chromatographed cytolysin contained 4
proteins with molecular masses between 90 and 68
kd. Fractions with high lytic activities also had additional
protein bands with molecular masses of 98 and
63 kd. Immunoblots of gel-column chromatographed
diafiltered retentate revealed proteins with molecular
masses between 90 and 68 kd.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Diafiltered
M bovis cytolysin is aggregated with endotoxin.
Antigenicity and cytolytic activities in diafiltered retentate
are conserved among M bovis isolates.
Diafiltration could be useful for bulk semipurification
of M bovis cytolysin. Cytolysin-enriched vaccines of
M bovis could be contaminated by endotoxin. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:977–983)
Objective—To explore the use of urethral endoscopy
and laser lithotripsy in the diagnosis and
management of urolithiasis in goats and pot-bellied
Design—Prospective clinical study.
Animals—16 male goats and 6 male pot-bellied pigs
Procedure—Abdominal ultrasonography and urethral
endoscopy were performed on all 22 animals.
laser lithotripsy was performed in 3 goats and 2
Results—Urolithiasis was identified in 15 goats
and 5 pot-bellied pigs. Primary urinary bladder
paralysis and cystitis were identified in the remaining
pot-bellied pig and goat. Mean bladder diameters
of obstructed small- and large-breed goats
were 7 and 9.5 cm, respectively. The mean bladder
diameter of obstructed pot-bellied pigs was
9.5 cm. Five of 20 animals with obstructive
urolithiasis had severe urethral necrosis or stricture
formation at the time of urethroscopy. All of
these animals were euthanatized within 6 months
because of persistent dysuria. When used, laser
lithotripsy successfully fractured the distally located
obstructing stones in the 3 goats and 2 pot-bellied
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urethral
endoscopy is useful for evaluating urethral patency
in goats and pot-bellied pigs. Examination of the
urethral mucosa following relief of urethral obstructions
aids in the assessment of the long-term prognosis
for urethral stricture. Urethral endoscopy also
expands the therapeutic options for management of
urolithiasis by providing a route for conducting laser
lithotripsy. Laser lithotripsy proved to be safe and
effective for clearing distally located calculi refractory
to removal by traditional urethral flushing.
Lithotripsy application is restricted to calculi
lodged in the urethra. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;
Case Description—A closed herd of 400 mixed-breed dairy goats was examined because of a decrease in milk production and increase in mortality rate. Nine animals had died within a 1-month period.
Clinical Findings—Clinical signs were evident only in lactating goats and included anorexia and recumbency. In the most severely affected goats, signs progressed to neurologic abnormalities and death. Serum aspartate aminotransferase activity, γ-glutamyltransferase activity, and total bilirubin concentration were high in clinically affected does, but no evidence of hemolysis was found. A diagnosis of copper toxicosis was made on the basis of high liver and kidney copper concentrations and histologic evidence of hepatic necrosis. Goats were found to have been fed a mineral mix containing 3,050 ppm copper for 9 months prior to the onset of copper toxicosis. Overall, there was no consistent relationship between serum hepatic enzyme activities, serum copper concentration, and liver copper concentration.
Treatment and Outcome—Clinically affected goats were treated with penicillamine, ammonium molybdate, sodium thiosulfate, and vitamin E. Penicillamine increased urine copper excretion in treated does versus untreated control animals. An increased incidence of infectious disease was identified in the herd 9 months later. Liver vitamin E concentration was low in 10 of the 12 goats that underwent necropsy.
Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that penicillamine may be an effective treatment for goats with copper toxicosis. Production losses months after the diagnosis was made suggested that the intoxication had a prolonged animal welfare and economic impacts.
Objective—To evaluate rumen transfaunation after
surgical correction of left-sided displacement of the
abomasum (LDA) in cows.
Design—Prospective clinical trial.
Animals—20 multiparous cows with LDA.
Procedures—Cows with LDA were treated surgically
(day 0). On days 0 (immediately after surgery) and 1,
10 cows each received 10 L of rumen fluid (transfaunated
group) or 10 L of water (control group) via a
stomach tube. Postoperative dietary dry-matter intake
and milk yield of each cow were recorded daily for 5
days, beginning immediately after surgery. Blood and
rumen fluid samples were collected prior to surgery
and on days 1, 3, and 5 after surgery. Serum nonesterified
fatty acid and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations
were measured. Volatile fatty acid and ammonia
concentrations and pH of rumen fluid were determined.
Urine specimens were collected and tested
for ketones at 8 AM and 4 PM. Cows with ketonuria
were treated with 50% dextrose solution administered
IV at the time ketonuria was first detected.
Cows with ketonuria were treated twice daily until
Results—All cows survived and completed their lactation.
Daily and cumulative dry-matter intake and
milk yield of cows in the transfaunated group were
significantly greater than those of cows in the control
group. Cows in the transfaunated group had significantly
lower serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate
and significantly lower acetate-to-propionate
ratios in rumen fluid on day 1 after surgery, compared
with cows in the control group . Cows that received
transfaunate required a significantly lower total volume
of dextrose administered IV than control cows.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Benefits of
rumen transfaunation of cows after surgical correction
of LDA included a lesser degree of ketonuria,
greater feed intake, and higher milk yield, compared
with nontransfaunated cows. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of ceftiofur crystalline-
free acid (CCFA) administered into the posterior
aspect of an ear for treatment of corneal ulceration
associated with naturally occurring infectious bovine
Animals—78 beef calves located at Sierra Foothills
Field Station (SFS) and 52 calves located at a commercial
dairy (CD). All calves were from 3 to 9
Procedure—At each site, calves were randomly allocated
to 1 of 2 treatment groups by use of a block
design determined by corneal ulcer size. A single
dose of CCFA (6.6 mg of ceftiofur equivalents/kg, SC)
was administered into the posterior aspect of a pinna.
A second group of calves received a single dose of
vehicle (0.03 mL/kg, SC; controls). Corneal ulcers
were photographed, and clinical signs were assessed
in calves every 3 to 4 days for 21 days.
Results—A positive treatment effect was detected
at SFS. Results at the CD were inconclusive
because ulcer healing occurred rapidly in control and
CCFA-treated calves. At SFS, treatment with CCFA
resulted in shorter mean healing times, smaller
corneal ulcer surface area measurements, amelioration
of ocular discharge and photophobia, and a 50%
increase in the percentage of calves healed by day
14. After adjustment for initial corneal ulcer size,
treatment with CCFA resulted in a 4-fold increase in
the odds of corneal ulcer healing by day 14, compared
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A single dose
of CCFA administered into the posterior aspect of a
pinna had a positive treatment effect against naturally
occurring IBK in calves with corneal ulcerations . (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1185–1188)
Objective—To determine the efficacy of florfenicol
for treatment of calves with naturally occurring infectious
bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK).
Design—Randomized controlled field trial.
Animals—63 beef calves and 80 dairy calves
between 4 and 12 months of age.
Procedure—Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3
treatment groups. Calves in the SC treatment group
received a single dose of florfenicol (40 mg/kg [18.2
mg/lb] of body weight), SC, on day 0. Calves in the IM
treatment group received florfenicol (20 mg/kg [9.1
mg/lb]), IM, on days 0 and 2. Calves in the control
group received injections of saline solution (0.9%
NaCl), IM, on days 0 and 2. Calves were reevaluated
every other day for 20 days after treatment.
Results—Corneal ulcers healed by day 20 in 48 of 49
(98%) calves treated with florfenicol IM, 39 of 42
(93%) calves treated with florfenicol SC, and 33 of 52
(63%) control calves.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Florfenicol
administered SC (1 dose) or IM (2 doses 48 hours
apart) was effective for treatment of calves with naturally
occurring IBK. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216: