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Abstract

Objective—To determine plasma endotoxin concentration in horses competing in a 48-, 83-, or 159-km endurance race and its importance with regard to physical, hematologic, or serum and plasma biochemical variables.

Animals—83 horses.

Procedure—Weight and rectal temperature measurements and blood samples were obtained before, during, and after exercise. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma endotoxin concentration; serum antiendotoxin antibody titers; thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and 6- keto-prostaglandin F (PGF) concentrations; tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) activities; WBC, plasma protein, lactate, serum electrolyte, and calcium concentrations; PCV; and creatine kinase activity.

Results—Detection of plasma endotoxin increased during exercise for horses competing at all distances but occurred more frequently in the 48- and 83-km groups. Plasma lactate concentration was significantly greater when endotoxin was concurrently detected. Endotoxin in plasma was not significantly associated with success of race completion. Plasma TxB2 and PGF concentrations and serum IL-6 activity significantly increased with exercise. Horses that had an excellent fitness level (as perceived by their owners) had greater decreases in serum antiendotoxin antibody titers during exercise than did horses perceived as less fit. In horses with better finish times, TxB2 and PGF concentrations were significantly greater and TNFα activity was significantly less than that of slower horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Endotoxemia developed during endurance racing, but was significantly correlated with increased plasma lactate concentration and not with other variables indicative of endotoxemia. Plasma TxB2 and PGF concentrations and serum TNFα activity may be associated with performance success. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:754–761)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare physiologic, hematologic, and selected serum and plasma biochemical variables obtained from horses competing in 48-, 83-, or 159- km endurance rides before competition and at the same cumulative distance points.

Animals—83 horses.

Procedure—Weight and rectal temperature measurements and blood samples were obtained from horses before, during, and after 1 of 3 rides conducted on the same day. Plasma protein (PP), lactate, WBC, serum electrolyte, and calcium concentrations; PCV; and creatine kinase (CK) activity were determined. Assessments were made to determine whether any differences among groups, with respect to total distance competed, could be explained by differences in lap speed or conditioning and to investigate the effect of time in transit or on-site prior to competition on results of blood analyses or competition outcome.

Results—Horses in the 159-km distance group had the lowest preride serum sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, and calcium concentrations. As hours in transit increased, preride PP concentration was significantly greater; serum sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate concentrations were lower; CK activity at 159 km was greater; and horses were more likely to be eliminated. The preride sodium was significantly greater in horses that completed the ride, compared with those eliminated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among distance groups, distance ridden, speed, level of fitness, and years of experience of horses had little effect on the variables examined. Electrolyte and water supplementation and earlier arrival at the event may be beneficial for horses that are transported long distances to endurance competition. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:746–753)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the performance of 3 point-of-care glucose meters in adult and juvenile alpacas with that of a laboratory-based analyzer.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—35 adult alpacas and 21 juvenile alpacas.

Procedures—Whole blood samples obtained via jugular venipuncture were tested with all 3 point-of-care glucose meters; plasma samples were also tested with 1 of those meters. Glucose concentrations determined by use of the point-of-care meters were compared with results from the laboratory-based analyzer.

Results—Plasma glucose concentrations determined by use of the laboratory-based analyzer ranged from 36 to 693 mg/dL. Over the entire range of glucose concentrations tested, the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (agreement) was significant and excellent for all comparisons. Concordance decreased for 1 glucometer when testing whole blood samples over a narrower range of glucose concentrations (50 to 200 mg/dL). Bias was typically small (< 10 mg/dL) for 3 of the 4 comparisons but considerable for 1 meter with the use of whole blood. The limits of agreement were wide for all comparisons over the entire range of glucose concentrations tested but decreased to within acceptable limits when the narrower glucose range (50 to 200 mg/dL) was analyzed for 3 of the comparisons. For samples with a PCV < 25%, bias and the limits of agreement were greater for one of the meters tested.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Discrepancies between point-of-care glucose meters and reference techniques can be considerable in alpacas, emphasizing the importance of assessing individual meter performance in a target population.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of resistance to all anthelmintics that are commonly used to treat gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in goats.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—777 goats.

Procedure—On each farm, goats were assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups: untreated controls, albendazole (20 mg/kg [9.0 mg/lb], PO, once), ivermectin (0.4 mg/kg [0.18 mg/lb], PO, once), levamisole (12 mg/kg [5.4 mg/lb], PO, once), or moxidectin (0.4 mg/kg, PO, once), except on 3 farms where albendazole was omitted. Fecal samples were collected 2 weeks after treatment for determination of fecal egg counts (FECs), and percentage reductions were calculated by comparing data from anthelmintic-treated and control groups. Nematode populations were categorized as susceptible, suspected resistant, or resistant by use of guidelines published by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology.

Results—Resistance to albendazole was found on 14 of 15 farms, and resistance to ivermectin, levamisole, and moxidectin was found on 17, 6, and 1 of 18 farms, respectively. Suspected resistance to levamisole and moxidectin was found on 4 and 3 farms, respectively. Resistance to multiple anthelmintics (albendazole and ivermectin) was found on 14 of 15 farms and to albendazole, ivermectin, and levamisole on 5 of 15 farms. Mean overall FEC reduction percentages for albendazole, ivermectin, levamisole, and moxidectin were 67, 54, 94, and 99%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anthelmintic resistance in GINs of goats is highly prevalent in the southern United States. The high prevalence of resistance to multiple anthelmintics emphasizes the need for reexamination of nematode control practices. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:495–500)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of anthelmintic resistance on sheep and goat farms in the southeastern United States.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—Sheep and goats from 46 farms in 8 southern states, Puerto Rico, and St Croix in the US Virgin Islands.

Procedures—Parasite eggs were isolated from fecal samples, and susceptibility to benzimidazole, imidathiazole, and avermectin-milbemycin anthelmintics was evaluated with a commercial larval development assay.

ResultsHaemonchus contortus was the most common parasite on 44 of 46 farms; Trichostrongylus colubriformis was the second most commonly identified parasite. Haemonchus contortus from 45 (98%), 25 (54%), 35 (76%), and 11 (24%) farms were resistant to benzimidazole, levamisole, ivermectin, and moxidectin, respectively. Resistance to all 3 classes of anthelmintics was detected on 22 (48%) farms, and resistance to all 3 classes plus moxidectin was detected on 8 farms (17%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings provided strong evidence that anthelmintic resistance is a serious problem on small ruminant farms throughout the southeastern United States. Owing to the frequent movement of animals among regions, the prevalence of resistance in other regions of the United States is likely to also be high. Consequently, testing of parasite eggs for anthelmintic resistance should be a routine part of parasite management on small ruminant farms.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association