Case Description—A 2.5-year-old 12.4-kg (27.3-lb) castrated male Scottish Terrier was evaluated because of episodes of hypertonia and kyphosis for which a presumptive diagnosis of so-called Scottie cramp had been made when the dog was a puppy.
Clinical Findings—Findings of general physical, orthopedic, and neurologic examinations were within reference limits. Pelvic limb hypertonicity and kyphosis without signs of pain were induced with minimal exercise; ambulation returned to normal after a period of rest.
Treatment and Outcome—Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was administered orally at a dosage of 1.2 mg/kg (0.55 mg/lb) once daily for 1 month. After this period of treatment, clinical signs of the disease were greatly reduced; the dosage of fluoxetine was changed to 0.8 mg/kg (0.36 mg/lb) twice daily, and response to treatment continued.
Clinical Relevance—Administration of benzodiazepines, vitamin E, or phenothiazines has been recommended for treatment of episodes of hypertonicity, but often does not result in control of clinical signs. It has been suggested that the pathogenesis of this disease is related to deficiencies in concentration or function of serotonin in the CNS; thus, a logical choice for treatment is administration of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. In the dog of this report, fluoxetine resulted in good control of clinical signs. The use of an effective medication (other than a controlled substance) that is administered once or twice daily, has minimal adverse effects on the patient's mental status, and is inexpensive may lead to better owner compliance and an improved quality of life for affected dogs.
Case Description—2 dogs and 1 cat underwent endoscopic-assisted intracranial procedures for lesion biopsy (1 dog and 1 cat) and definitive lesion removal (1 dog).
Clinical Findings—1 cat was treated for an interhemispheric, pedunculated meningioma with an associated arachnoid cyst. Two dogs underwent endoscopic surgery procedures; 1 dog underwent removal of an intranasal dermoid cyst with extension to the olfactory bulb dura, and the other underwent lesion biopsy for histologic confirmation of suspected intracranial granular cell tumor.
Treatment and Outcome—Minimally invasive intracranial procedures were achieved by use of an endoscope to aid in lesion biopsy in a dog and a cat with neoplasia and complete lesion removal in 1 dog with a dermoid cyst. No obvious morbidity from the use of the endoscope was observed. Rapid recovery from surgery was seen in all 3 animals, and hospitalization times were a few days.
Clinical Relevance—In human and veterinary neurosurgery, minimally invasive surgical approaches for diagnosis and treatment are gaining in popularity. Minimally invasive techniques are used to achieve a decrease in surgical time, minimize brain exposure, and decrease postoperative recovery times. Keyhole and minimally invasive approaches require some degree of dexterity and knowledge of where the endoscope is in a 3-dimensional orientation and its relationship to the topography of an anatomic region. Anticipation of complications should allow for potential conversion to an open craniotomy. Use of the endoscope in minimally invasive procedures is associated with a steep learning curve to understand orientation, topography, and normal versus abnormal anatomy.