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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare diagnostic quality of percutaneous kidney biopsy specimens obtained with laparoscopy versus ultrasound guidance in dogs and compare diagnostic quality of specimens obtained with 14- versus 18-gauge biopsy needles.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—10 healthy dogs.

Procedure—In each dog, 2 biopsy specimens were obtained from each kidney, 1 with a 14-gauge biopsy needle and 1 with an 18-gauge biopsy needle. Biopsy specimens were obtained from 1 kidney by means of ultrasound guidance and from the contralateral kidney by means of direct viewing during laparoscopy. Number of glomeruli, quality of the biopsy specimen, proportion of specimens that contained muscle tissue, and proportion of specimens with fragmentation or crushing were determined.

Results—Mean ± SD number of glomeruli (32.6 ± 11.0) in laparoscopic, 14-gauge biopsy specimens was significantly higher than mean number of glomeruli in ultrasound-guided, 14-gauge specimens; mean number of glomeruli in ultrasound-guided, 18-gauge specimens; and mean number of glomeruli in laparoscopic, 18-gauge specimens. All 10 laparoscopic, 14-gauge biopsy specimens were classified as excellent. The proportion of 18-gauge biopsy specimens with crushing or fragmentation was significantly higher than the proportion of 14-gauge specimens. One of the kidneys biopsied with ultrasound guidance had a large amount of hemorrhage. Hemorrhage was modest and transient following laparoscopic biopsy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that excellent-quality renal biopsy specimens with large numbers of glomeruli can be obtained with 14-gauge, double-spring-activated biopsy needles during laparoscopy. Renal biopsy specimens obtained with 18-gauge biopsy needles frequently had few glomeruli and often were crushed or fragmented, increasing the difficulty in making an accurate diagnosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:317–321)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To ascertain effects of x-ray beam centering and limb position on apparent congruity of a normal cubital joint (elbow).

Animals

6 skeletally mature male Treeing Walker Coonhounds without physical, radiographic, or gross evidence of elbow abnormalities.

Procedure

Relative movement among humerus, radius, and ulna and measured joint space width on mediolateral and craniocaudal radiographic views was compared, using various x-ray beam centering and limb positions.

Results

Highest agreement and greatest certainty on subjective determination of congruity was for the flexed 90° mediolateral radiographic view with the x-ray beam centered on the elbow. Distortion artifact of the proximal ulnar measurements was significant when the x-ray beam was centered on the midpoint of the radius. On the mediolateral view, the humeroradial joint space became significantly wide when the elbow was flexed. On the craniocaudal view, maximal humeroradial joint space width was obtained when the x-ray beam bisected the angle of the joint or was angled +30° toward the humerus.

Conclusions

Artifact distortion of joint width affected objective and subjective assessment of elbow congruity when the limb was placed in extreme flexion or extension or when the x-ray beam was not centered over the area of interest. Optimal visualization of the humeroradial joint space on the craniocaudal view was achieved when the x-ray beam bisected the angle of the elbow or was slightly angled toward the humerus.

Clinical Relevance

Elbow congruity was best assessed on the flexed 90° lateral radiographic view with the x-ray beam centered on the joint. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1351–1357)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effect of erythromycin lactobionate (ERY) on ileocecocolic myoelectric activity and passage of radiolabeled markers from the cecum.

Animals

6 healthy adult ponies.

Procedure

After a 12-hour nonfeeding period, 370 MBq of technetium 99m-labeled sulfur colloid in egg albumen and 37 MBq of indium 111-labeled diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid in 60 ml of water were administered directly into the cecal apex. The following drug concentrations were tested: ERY, 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, and 10.0 mg/kg of body weight; ERY, 0.10 mg/kg bolus; and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, 10 ml. All treatments, with the exception of the 0.10-mg/kg bolus and saline solution, were infusions administered IV during a 60-minute period in a randomized complete block design. Each treatment was administered 2 times/pony. Dual-phase scintigraphic images were obtained, and the best-fit function was determined for each study, using data from the right side. Myoelectric data were collected before and after each treatment and analyzed for spike burst rate, relative activity, and burst duration.

Results

The time to 50% emptying (t50) after ERY administration was dose dependent, and all treatments, with the exception of the 0.01-mg/kg infusion, resulted in a significantly shorter t50 than that observed after saline administration (230.2 ± 17.12 minutes). The shortest t50 was observed after the 1.0 mg/kg dosage of ERY (76.9 ± 22.0 minutes). Although not significantly different, the t50 and β were shorter (108.6 ± 25.9 minutes) and steeper after a bolus dose of 0.10 mg/kg of ERY than after infusion at the same dosage (131.1 ± 18.7 minutes).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

ERY may be a useful prokinetic for prevention or treatment of cecal motility dysfunction. The ability of ERY to evoke a similar response during the early postanesthetic or postoperative period remains to be determined. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:328–334)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine effect of xylazine hydrochloride (XYL), yohimbine hydrochloride (YOH), bethanechol chloride (BET), neostigmine methyl sulfate (NEO), or flunixin meglumine (FLU) on ileocecocolic myoelectric activity and passage of radiolabeled markers from the cecum.

Animals

6 healthy adult ponies.

Procedure

A cecal cannula was surgically implanted, and 12 were sutured to the ileum, cecum, and right ventral colon. After a 12-hour nonfeeding period, 370 MBq of technetium 99m-labeled sulfur colloid in egg albumen and 37 MBq of indium 111-labeled diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid in 60 ml of water were injected into the cecal apex. All drugs were administered IV as a bolus, with the exception of NEO, which was given SC: XYL, 0.5 mg/kg of body weight; YOH, 0.075 mg/kg; BET, 0.025 mg/kg; NEO, 0.025 mg/kg; FLU, 1.1 mg/kg; and saline solution (SAL), 10 ml. Drugs were administered in a randomized complete block design, each treatment was administered twice to each pony, and dual-phase scintigraphic images were obtained. The time to 50% emptying (t50) and the slope of the emptying curve (β) were derived from the calculated power exponential equation.

Results

The t50 after BET (184.8 ± 16.5 minutes) and NEO (124.7 ± 16.5 minutes) administration were significantly shorter than values after saline (230.2 ± 17.1 minutes) administration. The t50 after XYL administration (250.5 ± 18.6 minutes) was longer, and that after YOH administration (190.1 ± 16.2 minutes) was shorter, than the t50 after saline administration, but neither difference was significant. The t50 and β after FLU administration differed from those after saline administration. Myoelectric data appeared to be well correlated with drug-induced alterations in isotope clearance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Cholinergic agonists, BET and NEO, have significant effects on the myoelectric activity of ileum, cecum, and right ventral colon, with the net effect of hastening cecal emptying. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:320–327)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the outcomes of doublelayer inverting anastomosis (DIA), single-layer anastomosis (SLA), and single-layer anastomosis combined with a hyaluronate membrane (SLA+HA-membrane) with respect to stomal diameter, adhesion formation, surgery time, and anastomotic healing in horses.

Animals—18 adult horses.

Procedure—Midline celiotomy and end-to-end anastomoses were performed. In control horses (n = 6), DIA was performed; in treated horses, SLA was performed (6) or SLA+HA-membrane was performed (6). Horses were euthanatized 21 days after surgery. Abdominal adhesions were evaluated grossly and histologically. Stomal diameters were measured ultrasonographically and compared with adjacent luminal diameters. Anastomotic healing was evaluated histologically for fibrosis and inflammation, tissue alignment, and inversion. Surgery times were recorded for the anastomotic procedure and compared among groups.

Results—There were significantly more adhesions in the SLA group, compared with the DIA and SLA+HAmembrane groups. Reduction in stomal diameters in the DIA group was significantly greater than the SLA and SLA+HA-membrane groups. Surgery times for the DIA group were significantly greater than the SLA and SLA+HA-membrane groups. Histologic findings of fibrosis, inflammation, and mucosal healing were similar among groups. There was significant tissue inversion in the DIA group, compared with the 2 treatment groups. Tissue alignment was not different among groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of a SLA+HA-membrane was an effective small intestinal anastomotic technique. This technique was faster to perform and resulted in a larger stomal diameter, compared with the DIA technique and significantly fewer perianastomotic adhesions, compared with the SLA technique. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1314–1319)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To determine normal cecal emptying curves for liquid- and solid-phase radiolabeled markers and to further define myoelectric patterns of the ileum, cecum, and colon in healthy ponies.

Animals

6 adult ponies.

Procedure

A cecal cannula and 12 bipolar Ag-AgCl recording electrodes were sutured to the ileum, cecum, and right ventral colon of the ponies. Radioisotopes, indium 111-labeled diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid (111In-DTPA) and technetium 99m (99mTc)-labeled sulfur colloid bound to egg albumen, were introduced through the cannula directly into the cecal body. Movement of these markers from the cecum was monitored by a gamma camera, and power exponential clearance curves were generated. Myoelectric data were collected before and after IV administration of isotonic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, and were analyzed for spike burst (SB) rate, relative activity index, and mean burst duration. Myoelectric complexes were identified from observation of chart recordings or compressed, digitized data.

Results

Clearance curves were generated for liquid (111In-DTPA)- and solid (99mTc)-phase markers. Marker types were not different with respect to lag phase, but liquid markers emptied at a slightly faster rate than did solids. Baseline values were calculated after saline solution administration for each of the myoelectric variables investigated. A relation between ileal, cecal, and colonic myoelectric activity was identified. Activity consistent with the previously described colonic migrating myoelectric complex in the pelvic flexure was identified in the right ventral colon.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Baseline data on normal cecal emptying was obtained; this technique could be used to evaluate the effect of postulated motility-modifying treatments used in equine practice. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:313–319)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine the usefulness of 5 radiographic projections of the elbow joint for identification of fragmented coronoid process (FCP) and associated secondary degenerative changes in dogs.

Design

Longitudinal clinical study.

Animals

19 dogs suspected of having FCP (7 dogs, 1 elbow joint; 12 dogs, both elbow joints).

Procedure

5 radiographic projections were obtained before and after surgery for all elbow joints on which exploratory arthrotomy was performed because of suspected FCP. Radiographs obtained before surgery were compared with radiographs obtained after surgery and radiographs taken of the excised fragments. Each projection was evalated for its utitility in definitively identifying FCP and 7 specific degenerative changes. Interevaluator agreement, use of each radiographic projection for definitively identifying a feature, and ability of the 4 evaluators to definitively identify a feature were analyzed.

Results

The craniolateral-caudomedial oblique (Cr15L-CdMO) projection had a significantly higher sensitivity for definitively identifying FCP, compared with the other 4 projections. Interevaluator and kappa agreement for the 5 projections did not differ significantly among the 7 degenerative changes evaluated. The radiographic projection with the highest sensitivity and specificity for detection of a particular degenerative change varied by feature.

Clinical Implications

Of the 5 radiographic projections evaluated, the Cr15L-CdMO projection provided the highest sensitivity and was the best projection to use for definitively identifying FCP. The craniocaudal, Cr15L-CdMO, and mediolateral projections most reliably allowed for identification of secondary degenerative changes. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:52–58)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association