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  • Author or Editor: Lisa K. Urlich x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether breed, age, sex, or reproductive status (ie, neutered versus sexually intact) was associated with the apparent increase in prevalence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths and the decrease in prevalence of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) uroliths in cats over time.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—Case cats consisted of cats with CaOx (n = 7,895) or MAP (7,334) uroliths evaluated at the Minnesota Urolith Center between 1981 and 1997. Control cats consisted of cats without urinary tract disease admitted to veterinary teaching hospitals in the United States and Canada during the same period (150,482).

Procedure—Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed.

Results—British Shorthair, Exotic Shorthair, Foreign Shorthair, Havana Brown, Himalayan, Persian, Ragdoll, and Scottish Fold cats had an increased risk of developing CaOx uroliths, as did male cats and neutered cats. Chartreux, domestic shorthair, Foreign Shorthair, Himalayan, Oriental Shorthair, and Ragdoll cats had an increased risk of developing MAP uroliths, as did female cats and neutered cats. Cats with CaOx uroliths were significantly older than cats with MAP uroliths.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that changes in breed, age, sex, or reproductive status did not contribute to the apparent reciprocal relationship between prevalences of CaOx and MAP uroliths in cats during a 17-year period. However, cats of particular breeds, ages, sex, and reproductive status had an increased risk of developing CaOx and MAP uroliths. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:520–525)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that breed, age, sex, body condition, and environment are risk factors for development of calcium oxalate uroliths in dogs.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—1,074 dogs that formed calcium oxalate uroliths and 1,724 control dogs that did not have uroliths.

Procedure—A validated multiple-choice questionnaire was designed to collect information from veterinarians and owners within 1 year of the date of urolith detection concerning signalment and environment of the dogs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios to assess whether breed, age, sex, body condition, and environment were risk factors for calcium oxalate urolith formation.

Results—Middle-aged (8- to 12-year-old) castrated male dogs had increased risk for formation of calcium oxalate uroliths. Urolith formation was also associated with increasing age. Dogs of certain breeds, including Miniature and Standard Schnauzer, Lhasa Apso, Yorkshire Terrier, Bichon Frise, Shih Tzu, and Miniature and Toy Poodle, had increased risk for developing calcium oxalate uroliths. Overweight dogs also had increased risk.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Knowledge of patient and environmental risk factors for development of calcium oxalate uroliths may facilitate development of surveillance strategies that result in earlier detection of this disease. Modification of environmental factors and body weight may minimize calcium oxalate urolith formation and recurrence. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:515–519)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association