Objective—To determine analgesic effects of intraneural injection of ethyl alcohol or formaldehyde in the palmar digital nerves of horses.
Procedures—Ethyl alcohol was injected in the medial palmar digital nerve of 1 forelimb, and formaldehyde was injected in the contralateral nerve. The lateral palmar digital nerve in 1 forelimb was surgically exposed, but not injected, and the contralateral lateral palmar digital nerve was not treated. For each heel, severity of lameness in response to experimentally induced heel pain (lameness score and peak vertical force), thermal reaction time, and heel skin sensitivity scores were recorded. Heel pain was experimentally induced by advancing a threaded bolt through a custom-made horseshoe to apply pressure to the palmar horned aspect of the hoof. Horses were followed up for 112 days, when a subset of nerves was sampled for histologic analysis.
Results—Alcohol and formaldehyde significantly reduced all measures of heel pain, and analgesia was evident over the 112 days of the study. Pastern circumference was significantly greater for formaldehyde-treated than for alcohol-treated limbs. Histologic evaluation showed preservation of nerve fiber alignment with an intact epineurium, loss of axons, axon degeneration, fibrosis, and inflammation in alcohol-treated and formaldehyde-treated nerves.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that intraneural injection of either ethyl alcohol or formaldehyde in the palmar digital nerves of horses resulted in substantial, but partial, heel analgesia that persisted for at least 112 days. No advantage of formaldehyde over alcohol was found, and formaldehyde resulted in greater soft tissue inflammation.
Objective—To determine intra- and interobserver variability of 2 veterinary radiologists and 2 veterinary general practitioners for detection of pulmonary nodules in standard and inverted (reversed grayscale) displays of digital thoracic radiographs of dogs.
Sample—114 sets of 3-view (right lateral, left lateral, and ventrodorsal or dorsoventral views) digital thoracic radiographs from 114 dogs.
Procedures—2 experienced board-certified veterinary radiologists and 2 experienced veterinary general practitioners individually evaluated 114 randomized sets of radiographs. Pulmonary nodules were present in radiographs of 60 of 114 dogs. Each reviewer examined all images in standard or inverted display mode and scored nodule detection on a confidence scale of 1 to 5. After ≥ 2 months, the same individuals evaluated the same images in the remaining display mode. Intraobserver agreement for each display mode was determined via a κ statistic; results between the 2 groups of reviewers were compared via receiver operator curve analysis.
Results—There was no significant intraobserver variability in pulmonary nodule detection between the 2 display modes. Detection accuracy for board-certified radiologists was significantly greater than that of veterinary general practitioners for both display modes. Near-perfect intraobserver agreement was detected between the 2 display modes for board-certified radiologists, whereas moderate to slight intraobserver agreement was detected for the veterinary general practitioners.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Detection of pulmonary nodules in digital thoracic radiographs was comparable, whether a standard or inverted mode was used for evaluations. However, the board-certified radiologists had greater detection accuracy than did veterinary general practitioners.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of treatment on respiratory rate, serum natriuretic peptide concentrations, and Doppler echocardiographic indices of left ventricular filling pressure in dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to degenerative mitral valve disease (MVD) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
Design—Prospective cohort study.
Animals—63 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Physical examination, thoracic radiography, analysis of natriuretic peptide concentrations, and Doppler echocardiography were performed twice, at baseline (examination 1) and 5 to 14 days later (examination 2). Home monitoring of respiratory rate was performed by the owners between examinations.
Results—In dogs with MVD, resolution of CHF was associated with a decrease in respiratory rate, serum N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration, and diastolic functional class and an increase of the ratio of peak velocity of early diastolic transmitral flow to peak velocity of early diastolic lateral mitral annulus motion (E:Ea Lat). In dogs with DCM, resolution of CHF was associated with a decrease in respiratory rate and serum NT-proBNP concentration and significant changes in 7 Doppler echocardiographic variables, including a decrease of E:Ea Lat and the ratio of peak velocity of early diastolic transmitral flow to isovolumic relaxation time. Only respiratory rate predicted the presence of CHF at examination 2 with high accuracy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Resolution of CHF was associated with predictable changes in respiratory rate, serum NT-proBNP concentration, and selected Doppler echocardiographic variables in dogs with DCM and MVD. Home monitoring of respiratory rate was simple and was the most useful in the assessment of successful treatment of CHF.
Objective—To evaluate intra-articular autologous protein solution (APS) for the treatment of osteoarthritis in horses.
Animals—40 client-owned horses with naturally occuring osteoarthritis.
Procedures—APS was generated from a dual-device system that concentrated plasma and WBC proteins and enriched platelet growth factors. Horses were randomly assigned to receive an intra-articular injection of 5 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (n = 20) or APS (20), exercised on a treadmill, and evaluated on the basis of lameness grades, kinetic gait analysis, joint circumference, and range of motion for 14 days. Horses that received saline solution were administered APS at termination of the study, and clients scored horses for lameness and discomfort before, 12 weeks after, and 52 weeks after the APS injection.
Results—The APS group had significant improvements in lameness grade, asymmetry indices of vertical peak force, and range of joint motion by 14 days, compared with baseline or control group values. No adverse effects associated with APS treatment were evident. Clients assessed lameness and comfort as improved at 12 and 52 weeks. The APS had greater likelihood (OR, 4.3 to 30.0) of a therapeutic response in horses with a lameness score < 4, < 10% vertical force asymmetry, or absence of marked osteophyte formation, subchondral sclerosis, or joint space narrowing. Concentration of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in APS was 5.8 times that in blood.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intra-articular administration of APS can be considered an effective treatment option for equine osteoarthritis, with the potential for disease-modifying effects.