Objective—To develop and compare 3 techniques for retrobulbar injection of local anesthetic agents for ocular surgery and analgesia in dogs.
Animals—17 dogs (including 9 cadavers).
Procedures—Inferior-temporal palpebral (ITP), perimandibular, and combined superior-inferior peribulbar injection techniques were compared by assessing the distribution of latex after injection into the orbits of 5 canine cadavers; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of the distribution of contrast agent after injection in the retrobulbar space of 4 canine cadavers; and assessment of the efficacy and MRI evaluation of the anatomic distribution of injections of a lidocainecontrast agent mixture in 4 anesthetized, nonrecovery dogs. By use of the preferred technique (ITP), the ocular effects of lidocaine anesthesia were evaluated in 4 dogs; during a 2-week period after treatment, dogs underwent ophthalmic examination, Schirmer tear testing (STT), intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and Cochet–Bonnet esthesiometry.
Results—Of the 3 techniques, the ITP technique was the preferred method for retrobulbar administration of anesthetic agent in dogs because it was efficacious (pupil dilation and central rotation of the globe achieved in all eyes), easiest to perform, and provided thorough coverage of the intraconal retrobulbar space without complication. During the 2-week follow-up period, the ITP injection did not significantly affect STT, IOP, or Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry values in dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, retrobulbar administration of anesthetic agents via the ITP technique is a potential alternative to systemic administration of neuromuscular blocking agents for ophthalmic surgery and provides the additional benefit of local ocular analgesia.
Objective—To determine the accuracy of cytologic diagnosis, compared with histologic diagnosis, in determination of disease in ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirates of splenic lesions.
Sample Population—Splenic specimens from 29 dogs and 3 cats.
Procedures—Records were searched for dogs and cats that had undergone ultrasound-guided splenic aspiration. Criteria for inclusion were ultrasonographic identification of splenic lesions and cytologic and histologic evaluation of tissue from the same lesion. Cytologic samples were obtained by fine-needle aspiration, and histologic specimens were obtained via surgical biopsy, ultrasound-guided biopsy, or necropsy.
Results—Cytologic diagnoses corresponded with histologic diagnoses in 19 of 31 (61.3%) cases and differed in 5 of 31(16.1%) cases, and 1 aspirate was inadequate for evaluation. In 7 of 31 (22.6%) cases, histologic evaluation of tissue architecture was required to distinguish between reactive and neoplastic conditions. On the basis of histologic diagnosis in 14 animals with nonneoplastic conditions, the cytologic diagnosis was correct in 11 cases, not definitive in 2 cases, and incorrect in 1 case. In 17 animals with malignant neoplastic diseases, the cytologic diagnosis was correct in 8 cases, not definitive but consistent with possible neoplasia in 5 cases, and incorrect in 4 cases. Multiple similar-appearing nodules were significantly associated with malignancy, whereas single lesions were more often benign.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasound-guided aspiration of splenic lesions is a minimally invasive tool for obtaining specimens for cytologic evaluation. Although cytologic diagnoses often reflect histologic results, if missampling or incomplete sampling occurs or tissue architecture is required to distinguish between reactive and neoplastic conditions, accurate diagnosis with fine-needle aspiration may not be possible.
Objective—To evaluate the feasibility and repeatability of in vivo measurement of stiffness gradients by means of acoustoelastography in the superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) of clinically normal horses.
Animals—15 clinically normal horses.
Procedures—For each horse, stiffness gradient index and dispersion values for SDFTs in both forelimbs were evaluated in longitudinal orientation by use of acoustoelastography at 3 sites (5, 10, and 15 cm distal to the accessory carpal bone) by 2 observers; for each observer, data were acquired twice per site. The left forelimb was always scanned before the right forelimb. Lifting of the contralateral forelimb with the carpus flexed during image acquisition resulted in the required SDFT deformation in the evaluated limb. Interobserver repeatability, intraobserver repeatability, and right-to-left limb symmetry for stiffness gradient index and dispersion values were evaluated.
Results—Stiffness gradient index and dispersion values for SDFTs at different locations as well as effects of age or sex did not differ significantly among the 15 horses. Interclass correlation coefficients for interobserver repeatability, intraobserver repeatability, and limb symmetry revealed good to excellent agreement (intraclass correlation coefficients, > 0.74).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that acoustoelastography is a feasible and repeatable technique for measuring stiffness gradients in SDFTs in clinically normal horses, and could potentially be used to compare healthy and diseased tendon states.
Objective—To compare long-term results of radiotherapy
alone versus radiotherapy followed by exenteration
of the nasal cavity in dogs with malignant
Animals—53 dogs with malignant intranasal neoplasia.
Procedure—All dogs underwent radiotherapy consisting
of administration of 10 fractions of 4.2 Gy each
on consecutive weekdays. For dogs in the surgery
group (n = 13), follow-up computed tomography was
performed, and dogs were scheduled for surgery if
persistent or recurrent tumor was seen.
Results—Perioperative complications for dogs that
underwent surgery included hemorrhage requiring
transfusion (2 dogs) and subcutaneous emphysema
(8). Rhinitis and osteomyelitis-osteonecrosis occurred
significantly more frequently in dogs in the radiotherapy
and surgery group (9 and 4 dogs, respectively)
than in dogs in the radiotherapy-only group (4 and 3
dogs, respectively). Two- and 3-year survival rates
were 44% and 24%, respectively, for dogs in the
radiotherapy group and 69% and 58%, respectively,
for dogs in the surgery group. Overall median survival
time for dogs in the radiotherapy and surgery group
(47.7 months) was significantly longer than time for
dogs in the radiotherapy-only group (19.7 months).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that exenteration of the nasal cavity significantly
prolongs survival time in dogs with intranasal neoplasia
that have undergone radiotherapy. Exenteration after
radiotherapy may increase the risk of chronic complications.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:936–941)