Objective—To describe the signalment, wound characteristics, and treatment of gunshot injuries in cats and dogs in urban and rural environments, and to evaluate the utility of the animal trauma triage (ATT) score as an early predictor of survival to discharge from the hospital.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—29 dogs and 8 cats.
Procedures—Medical records of cats and dogs evaluated for gunshot wounds from 2003 and 2008 at a private urban referral practice in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and an urban veterinary teaching hospital in Ames, Iowa, were reviewed. Information collected included signalment, chief reason for evaluation, circumstance of the injury, general physical examination findings, wound characteristics, treatments provided, cost of care, survival to discharge from the hospital (yes vs no), and duration of hospital stay. For each animal, ATT scores were calculated and evaluated as a prognostic tool.
Results—37 animals met study inclusion criteria. Animals with higher ATT scores had a greater likelihood of poor outcome following gunshot injury. Animals with higher ATT scores, classified as low (< 4.5) or high (> 4.5), were found to have a longer duration of stay, classified as zero (0 days), short (1 to 3 days), or long (> 3 days). Young male dogs generally considered working breeds were overrepresented (29/37 [78.4%]). A preference for low-velocity, low-kinetic-energy firearms was identified (19/37 [52%]). The most numerous wounds were those inflicted to the limbs (12/37 [32.4%]), during low-visibility hours or hunting excursions. Calculated ATT scores on admission were higher in animals requiring blood products or surgical procedures and in nonsurvivors.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study suggested that regional preferences in breed ownership and firearm choice are responsible for variation in gunshot injury characteristics and management in animals sustaining injuries in rural and urban settings in Iowa. In cats and dogs, calculation of an ATT score may provide a useful predictor of the need for surgery or blood products, duration of stay, and likelihood of survival to discharge from the hospital.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the lipidemia status and serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides of dogs when initially examined for hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a veterinary teaching hospital and to determine whether these variables were predictive of survival to hospital discharge.
PROCEDURES Medical records of sick dogs hospitalized in the ICU at a veterinary teaching hospital between January 1, 2012, and September 30, 2015, and of healthy dogs evaluated at the teaching hospital during the same time frame were reviewed. Data collection included signalment, results of initial physical and clinicopathologic examinations, treatments, diagnosis, and survival to hospital discharge. Lipidemia status and serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides were compared between healthy and sick dogs and between sick dogs that did and did not survive to hospital discharge. Regression analysis was performed to determine whether these variables were predictive of survival to hospital discharge in dogs.
RESULTS Factors associated with increased odds of sick dogs not surviving to hospital discharge were hypocholesterolemia (OR, 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 3.34), hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 3.20; 95% CI, 2.00 to 5.13), and concurrent hypocholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 55.7; 95% CI, 3.2 to 959.6) at the time of initial evaluation.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that hypocholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, alone or in combination, at initial examination were negative prognostic indicators for survival of dogs hospitalized in the ICU and that these conditions were easily identified with routine serum clinicopathologic analyses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;254:699–709)