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The Mackay-Marg, Tono-Pen, and Challenger applanation tonometers were evaluated in vivo in 12 clinically normal eyes of 6 dogs. Tonometric measures of intraocular pressure (iop) were compared with closed manometric iop measurements from the anterior chamber of anesthetized dogs. The tonometers were evaluated at iop that ranged from 5 to 100 mm of Hg. The Mackay-Marg tonometer was the most reliable instrument when evaluated at iop from 5 to 100 mm of Hg (r 2 = 0.996) and from 10 to 30 mm of Hg (r 2 = 0.962). The Tono-Pen tonometer was also reliable (r 2 = 0.967) over the range of iop, but consistently overestimated iop at lower pressures and underestimated iop at higher pressures. The Mackay-Marg and Tono-Pen measurements were essentially linear. When evaluated from 10 to 30 mm of Hg, r 2 was 0.828 for the Tono-Pen tonometer. The Challenger tonometer, although reliable over the full range of iop (r 2 = 0.965), proved to be less accurate, as indicated by lack of a good linear equation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Advancing equality and equity in society is creating positive change, and the time has come to critically evaluate veterinary medicine, which, by all metrics, lacks diversity. To keep pace with increasingly diverse demographics and recent surges in pet ownership among all racial/ethnic groups, significant efforts to enhance diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging (DEIB) must occur in veterinary colleges and the profession. Recruiting more underrepresented students, building pipelines for diverse faculty/staff, and creating inclusive, welcoming environments where all can thrive are critical steps toward enhancing DEIB within our organizations and profession. Our goal is to share experiences and lessons learned from our intentional commitment to strengthen DEIB, with the hope that our journey will be helpful to others. Increasing diversity in the veterinary profession will be facilitated through removing barriers, creating inclusive work environments where all people feel they belong, and ensuring fair and equitable hiring and personnel management practices. These steps should in turn improve access and quality of veterinary care, ensure we are more representative of the communities we serve, increase revenue, and preserve the human-animal bond.

“You cannot change any society unless you take responsibility for it, unless you see yourself belonging to it, and responsible for changing it.”

– Grace Lee Boggs

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the prognostic factors for survival and tumor recurrence in dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) in the perineal and inguinal regions treated surgically with or without adjunctive radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or both.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—68 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs with histologically confirmed MCTs in the perineal region, inguinal region, or both treated surgically with or without adjunctive radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or both were reviewed.

Results—Mean tumor-free interval was 1,635 days (median not reached), and 1- and 2-year tumor-free rates were 79% and 71%, respectively. Median survival time was 1,111 days (mean, 1,223 days), and 1- and 2-year survival rates were 79% and 61%, respectively. Factors that negatively influenced survival time were age at diagnosis, tumor recurrence, and treatment with lomustine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that dogs with MCTs in the inguinal and perineal regions, if appropriately treated, may have survival times and tumor-free intervals similar to dogs with MCTs in other locations. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:401–408)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association