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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole administered PO with or without food to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensus) and whether any observed variability could be explained by measured covariates to inform dose adjustments.

ANIMALS 7 adult red-tailed hawks.

PROCEDURES In a crossover study design, hawks were randomly assigned to first receive voriconazole (15 mg/kg, PO) injected into a dead mouse (n = 3; fed birds) or without food (4; unfed birds). Sixteen days later, treatments were reversed. Blood samples were collected at various points to measure plasma voriconazole concentrations by ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and fit to a compartmental model through nonlinear mixed-effects regression, with feeding status and body weight investigated as covariates.

RESULTS Voriconazole was well absorbed, with quantifiable plasma concentrations up to 24 hours after administration. Mean plasma half-life was approximately 2 hours in fed and unfed birds. Administration of the voriconazole in food delayed absorption, resulting in a significant delay in time to maximum plasma concentration. The final compartmental model included a categorical covariate to account for this lag in absorption as well as body weight as a covariate of total body clearance (relative to unknown bioavailability).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A single dose of voriconazole (15 mg/kg) administered PO to red-tailed hawks resulted in mean plasma voriconazole concentrations greater than the targeted value (1 μg/mL). Additional studies with larger sample sizes and multidose regimens are required before the model developed here can be applied in clinical settings.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium after IM and SC administration in green iguanas.

Animals—6 male and 4 female adult green iguanas.

Procedure—In a crossover design, 5 iguanas received a single dose of ceftiofur sodium (5 mg/kg) IM, and 5 iguanas received the same dose SC. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, and 40 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours after administration. After a 10-week washout period, each iguana was given the same dose via the reciprocal administration route, and blood was collected in the same fashion. Ceftiofur free-acid equivalents were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—The first phase intercepts were significantly different between the 2 administration routes. Mean maximum plasma concentration was significantly higher with the IM (28.6 ± 8.0 µg/mL) than the SC (18.6 ± 8.3 µg/mL) administration route. There were no significant differences between terminal halflives (harmonic mean via IM route, 15.7 ± 4.7 hours; harmonic mean via SC route, 19.7 ± 6.7 hours) and mean areas under the curve measured to the last time point (IM route, 11,722 ± 7,907 µg·h/mL; SC route, 12,143 ± 9,633 µg·h/mL). Ceftiofur free-acid equivalent concentrations were maintained ≥ 2 µg/mL for > 24 hours via both routes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A suggested dosing schedule for ceftiofur sodium in green iguanas for microbes susceptible at > 2 µg/mL would be 5 mg/kg, IM or SC, every 24 hours. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1278–1282)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate flow cytometric analysis for sex identification in 3 psittacine species, establish reference values for blood cell DNA content for each species, and determine effects of sample storage on DNA content.

Animals—36 orange-winged Amazon parrots, 41 budgerigars, and 39 cockatiels.

Procedure—Blood samples were stained and analyzed by use of flow cytometry to measure cellular DNA content. Samples were analyzed immediately after collection and after being stored at 4 C for 48 and 72 hours.

Results—Mean DNA content (picograms per cell) was 3.248 for Amazon parrots, 2.702 for budgerigars, and 2.946 for cockatiels; DNA concentrations in samples analyzed immediately overlapped in a male and a female Amazon parrot and among 19 cockatiels. For budgerigars, DNA overlap between sexes was not detected in samples analyzed immediately or after storage for 72 hours. Sex was identified correctly in 94.4% of Amazon parrots, 100% of budgerigars, and 51.3% of cockatiels. For both sexes, DNA content in samples analyzed immediately was significantly different from that of stored samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Flow cytometric analysis was accurate for sex identification of Amazon parrots and budgerigars. Sample storage at 4 C for 48 or 72 hours caused variability in DNA content. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:847–850)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare sensitivity and specificity of cytologic examination and 3 chromogen tests for detection of occult blood in cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) excrement.

Animals—20 adult cockatiels.

Procedures—Pooled blood from birds was divided into whole blood and lysate aliquots. Excrement was mixed with each aliquot in vitro to yield 6 hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations (range, 0.375 to 12.0 mg of Hb/g of excrement). For the in vivo portion of the study, birds were serially gavaged with each aliquot separately at 5 doses of Hb (range, 2.5 to 40 mg/kg). Three chromogen tests and cytologic examination were used to test excrement samples for occult blood. Sensitivity, specificity, and observer agreement were calculated.

Results—In vitro specificity ranged from 85%to 100% for the 3 chromogen tests and was 100% for cytologic examination. Sensitivity was 0% to 35% for cytologic examination and 100% for the 3 chromogen tests on samples containing ≥ 1.5 mg of Hb/g of excrement. In vivo specificity was 100%, 90%, 65%, and 45% for cytologic examination and the 3 chromogen tests, respectively. Sensitivity was 0% to 5% for cytologic examination and ≥ 75% for all 3 chromogen tests after birds received doses of Hb ≥ 20 mg/kg. Observer agreement was lowest for cytologic examination.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Chromogen tests were more useful than cytologic examination for detection of occult blood in cockatiel excrement. The best combination of sensitivity, specificity, and observer agreement was obtained by use of a chromogen test.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the stability and distribution of voriconazole in 2 extemporaneously prepared (compounded) suspensions stored for 30 days at 2 temperatures.

Sample Population—Voriconazole suspensions (40 mg/mL) compounded from commercially available 200-mg tablets suspended in 1 of 2 vehicles. One vehicle contained a commercially available suspending agent and a sweetening syrup in a 1:1 mixture (SASS). The other vehicle contained the suspending agent with deionized water in a 3:1 mixture (SADI).

Procedures—Voriconazole suspensions (40 mg/mL in 40-mL volumes) were compounded on day 0 and stored at room temperature (approx 21°C) or refrigerated (approx 5°C). To evaluate distribution, room-temperature aliquots of voriconazole were measured immediately after preparation. Refrigerated aliquots were measured after 3 hours of refrigeration. To evaluate stability, aliquots from each suspension were measured at approximately 7-day intervals for up to 30 days. Voriconazole concentration, color, odor, opacity, and pH were measured, and aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were performed at various points.

Results—Drug distribution was uniform (coefficient of variation, < 5%) in both suspensions. On day 0, 87.8% to 93.0% of voriconazole was recovered; percentage recovery increased to between 95.1% and 100.8% by day 7. On subsequent days, up to day 30, percentage recovery was stable (> 90%) for all suspensions. The pH of each suspension did not differ significantly throughout the 30-day period. Storage temperature did not affect drug concentrations at any time, nor was bacterial growth obtained.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Extemporaneously prepared voriconazole in SASS and SADI resulted in suspensions that remained stable for at least 30 days. Refrigerated versus room-temperature storage of the suspensions had no effect on drug stability.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

The FARAD manages the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank and has been serving the veterinary profession for 35 years. It is funded and sponsored by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and is overseen and operated by faculty and staff within the colleges of veterinary medicine at the University of California-Davis, University of Florida, Kansas State University, and North Carolina State University.

The overarching goal of FARAD is to provide veterinary practitioners the most current and accurate information to facilitate the production of safe foods of animal origin through the prevention and mitigation of violative chemical (eg,

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

In recent years, backyard poultry flocks have become increasingly popular in urban areas throughout the United States. Results of a 2010 USDA study 1 of 4 US cities (Denver, Los Angeles, Miami, and New York) indicated that 1% of households surveyed owned chickens and another 4% of households surveyed were planning on owning chickens within the next 5 years. The increase in the number of small poultry flocks in urban areas has led to an increase in the demand for veterinary services for those flocks, and veterinarians whose clientele is usually limited to companion animals now find themselves treating

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the use of a caudal external thoracic artery axial pattern flap to treat sternal cutaneous wounds in birds.

Animals—16 adult Japanese quail.

Procedure—A cutaneous defect in the region of the mid-sternum was surgically created in all quail. In 6 quail (group I), an axial pattern flap was created from the skin of the lateral aspect of the thorax and advanced over the sternal defect. In 8 quail (group II), a flap was similarly created and advanced but the flap vasculature was ligated. All quail were euthanatized at 14 days after surgery and had necropsies performed. Sections of the flap and the surrounding tissue were examined histologically to assess flap viability.

Results—All axial pattern flaps in group-I quail had 100% survival. In group II, mean percentage area of flap survival was 62.5%; mean area of necrosis and dermal fibrosis of flaps were significantly greater than that detected in group I. In flaps of group-II quail, neovascularization in the deep dermis and profound necrosis of the vascular plexus in the superficial dermis were observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the caudal external thoracic artery axial pattern flap could be used successfully in the treatment of surgically created sternal cutaneous defects in quail with no signs of tissue necrosis or adverse effects overall. Use of this technique to treat selfmutilation syndromes or application after surgical debulking of tumors or other masses might be beneficial in many avian species. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:497–502)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare efficacy and safety of meso- 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and Ca EDTA for treatment of experimentally induced lead toxicosis in cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus).

Animals—137 (69 females, 68 males) healthy cockatiels between 6 months and 8 years old.

Procedure—Lead toxicosis was induced by placing lead shot in the gastrointestinal tract. Treatment with Ca EDTA (40 mg/kg of body weight, IM, q 12 h), DMSA (40 or 80 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h), and sodium sulfate salts (SSS; 0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 48 h) was initiated 4 days after induction of lead toxicosis. Blood lead concentrations were determined, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Number of birds surviving and blood lead concentrations were compared among groups.

Results—In Phase II of the study, administration of DMSA and Ca EDTA significantly decreased blood lead concentrations when used alone or in combination in birds with lead toxicosis. Addition of SSS did not result in further decreases in lead concentrations. Eight of 12 (66.7%) birds without lead toxicosis given 80 mg of DMSA/kg did not survive to the end of the study . Lesions related to treatment with chelating agents were not detected during necropsy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—DMSA and Ca EDTA are effective chelating agents in cockatiels. Because DMSA is administered orally, it may be easier than other chelating agents for bird owners to administer at home. However, the narrow margin of safety of DMSA indicates that this agent should be used with caution. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:935–940)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine induction doses, anesthetic constant rate infusions (CRI), and cardiopulmonary effects of propofol in red-tailed hawks and great horned owls and propofol pharmacokinetics in the owls during CRI.

Animals—6 red-tailed hawks and 6 great horned owls.

Procedure—The CRI dose necessary for a loss of withdrawal reflex was determined via specific stimuli. Anesthesia was induced by IV administration of propofol (1 mg/kg/min) and maintained by CRI at the predetermined dose for 30 minutes. Heart and respiratory rates, arterial blood pressures, and blood gas tensions were obtained in awake birds and at various times after induction. End-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) concentration and esophageal temperature were obtained after induction. Propofol plasma concentrations were obtained after induction and after completion of the CRI in the owls. Recovery times were recorded.

Results—Mean ± SD doses for induction and CRI were 4.48 ± 1.09 mg/kg and 0.48 ± 0.06 mg/kg/min, respectively, for hawks and 3.36 ± 0.71 mg/kg and 0.56 ± 0.15 mg/kg/min, respectively, for owls. Significant increases in PaCO2, HCO3, and ETCO2 in hawks and owls and significant decreases in arterial pH in hawks were detected. A 2-compartment model best described the owl pharmacodynamic data. Recovery times after infusion were prolonged and varied widely. Central nervous system excitatory signs were observed during recovery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Effects on blood pressure were minimal, but effective ventilation was reduced, suggesting the need for careful monitoring during anesthesia. Prolonged recovery periods with moderate-to-severe excitatory CNS signs may occur in these species at these doses. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:677–683)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research