Objective—To evaluate factors potentially associated
with fecal Salmonella shedding among equine
patients hospitalized for colic at a veterinary teaching
hospital and to determine the effects of probiotic
treatment on fecal Salmonella shedding and clinical
Design—Longitudinal study and controlled trial.
Animals—246 equine colic patients.
Procedure—History and medical information were
obtained from patient records. Fecal and environmental
samples were submitted for aerobic bacterial culture
for Salmonella enterica. Fifty-one patients were
treated with a commercially available probiotic; 46
were treated with a placebo. Logistic regression was
used to evaluate data.
Results—Salmonella organisms were detected in
feces from 23 (9%) patients at least once during hospitalization.
Patients were more likely to shed
Salmonella organisms if diarrhea was evident ≤ 6
hours after hospitalization and duration of hospitalization
exceeded 8 days (odds ratio [OR], 20.3), laminitis
developed during hospitalization (OR, 12.0), results of
nasogastric intubation were abnormal (OR, 4.9),
leukopenia was evident ≤ 6 hours after hospitalization
(OR, 4.6), or travel time to the teaching hospital
exceeded 1 hour (OR, 3.5). Horses treated with the
probiotic did not differ from control horses in regard to
likelihood of fecal Salmonella shedding (OR, 1.5) or
prevalence of clinical signs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that certain risk factors are associated with fecal
shedding of S enterica among equine patients hospitalized
at a veterinary teaching hospital because of
colic and that pathogen monitoring in patients and the
hospital environment and use of barrier nursing precautions
for equine colic patients are beneficial. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:740–748)
Objective—To report clinical and serologic findings in
horses with oral vesicular lesions that were consistent
with vesicular stomatitis (VS) but apparently
were not associated with VS virus (VSV) infection.
Design—Serial case study.
Procedure—Horses were quarantined after appearance
of oral lesions typical of VS. Severity of clinical
signs was scored every 2 to 5 days for 3 months.
Serum samples were tested for antibodies by use of
competitive ELISA (cELISA), capture ELISA for IgM,
serum neutralization, and complement fixation (CF).
Virus isolation was attempted from swab specimens
of active lesions.
Results—2 horses with oral vesicular lesions on day
1 had antibodies (cELISA and CF) against VSV; however,
results of CF were negative by day 19. Five of
the 6 remaining horses were seronegative but developed
oral lesions by day 23. Virus isolation was unsuccessful
for all horses.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Horses were
quarantined for 75 days in compliance with state and
federal regulations. However, evidence suggests that
oral lesions were apparently not associated with VSV
infection. The occurrence in livestock of a vesicular
disease that is not caused by VSV could confound
efforts to improve control of VS in the United States
and could impact foreign trade.Vesicular stomatitis is
of substantial economic and regulatory concern. (J
Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1399–1404)