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  • Author or Editor: Lindsey P. Garber x
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Abstract

Objective—To estimate prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella spp among horses in the US horse population and prevalence of Salmonella spp in grain or other concentrate used as horse feed on equine operations in the United States.

Design—Cross-sectional survey.

Sample Population—Horses on 972 operations in 28 states.

Procedure—Fecal samples were collected from horses resident at each operation. Only a single sample was collected from any individual horse; number of horses from which samples were collected on each operation was determined on the basis of number of horses on the operation. A single sample of grain or concentrate was also collected from each operation. All samples were tested for Salmonella spp by means of bacterial culture.

Results—Overall, 0.8% (SE, 0.5) of resident horses shed Salmonella spp in their feces. The overall prevalence of operations positive for fecal shedding of Salmonella spp (ie, operations with ≥ 1 horse shedding Salmonella spp in its feces) was 1.8% (SE, 0.7). Prevalence of grain or other concentrate samples positive for Salmonella spp was 0.4%. Serotypes of Salmonella spp that were identified in grain or other concentrate were not those typically associated with clinical disease in horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the national prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella spp by horses in the United States was 0.8%, and that prevalence of Salmonella spp in grain or other concentrate used for horse feed was 0.4%.(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:226–230)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify factors associated with excessive proportions of early fetal losses associated with mare reproductive loss syndrome in central Kentucky during 2001.

Design—Case-control study.

Procedure—Questionnaires were used to collect information on farm-, pasture-, and individual animallevel factors purportedly associated with mare reproductive loss syndrome. Data were collected for 133 farms (97 with excessive proportions of early fetal losses and 36 control farms) representing 6,576 mares.

Results—Factors significantly associated with an increased risk of excessive early fetal losses were exposure to moderate to high concentrations of Eastern tent caterpillars, exposure to cherry trees, farm size ≥ 50 broodmares, being bred during February 2001, and frequent exposure to waterfowl. Feeding hay to mares outside was associated with a decreased risk of excessive proportions of early fetal losses. Pasture composition and management factors were not significantly different between affected and control pastures. Individual animal-level factors were investigated on 6 farms representing 340 mares, and age, parity, and pre- and postbreeding treatments were not significantly associated with risk of early fetal loss.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that limiting exposure to Eastern tent caterpillars and cherry trees and feeding hay to mares outside may help decrease the risk of excessive proportions of early fetal losses associated with mare reproductive loss syndrome. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222: 613–619)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify factors associated with use of a veterinarian by small-scale food animal operations.

Design—Cross-sectional descriptive survey.

Sample—16,000 small-scale farm or ranch operations in all 50 states.

Procedures—Surveys were conducted via mail or telephone during 2011 for small-scale operations (gross annual agricultural sales between $10,000 and $499,999) in which an animal or animal product comprised the highest percentage of annual sales.

Results—8,186 (51.2%) operations responded to the survey; 7,849 surveys met the inclusion criteria. For 6,511 (83.0%) operations, beef cattle were the primary animal species. An estimated 82.1% of operations (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.1% to 83.0%) had a veterinarian available ≤ 29 miles away; 1.4% (95% CI, 1.2% to 1.7%) did not have a veterinarian available within 100 miles of the operation. Operations for which the nearest veterinarian was ≥ 100 miles away or for which a veterinarian was not available were located in 40 US states. Overall, 61.7% of operations (95% CI, 60.6% to 62.9%) had used a veterinarian during the 12 months prior to the survey. Producers with college degrees were significantly more likely to use a veterinarian (675%) versus those who did not complete high school (52.9%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated most small-scale operations had adequate access to veterinarians during 2011, but there seemed to be localized shortages of veterinarians in many states.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To estimate the national incidence of, operation-level risk factors for, and annual economic impact of colic among horses in the United States during 1998 and 1999.

Design—Epidemiologic survey.

Animals—21,820 horses on 1,026 horse operations in 28 states.

Procedures—Horses were monitored for colic for 1 year, and results were recorded in a log that was collected quarterly. Operation-level data were collected via 4 on-site personal interviews. Associations between colic and independent variables adjusted for size of operation were determined.

Results—Annual national incidence of colic in the US horse population was estimated to be 4.2 colic events/100 horses per year. Case fatality rate was 11%, and 1.4% of colic events resulted in surgery. Annual cost of colic in the Unites States was estimated to be $115,300,000.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The national impact of equine colic is substantial because of the high case fatality rate. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001; 219:67–71)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors associated with the spread of low pathogenicity H7N2 avian influenza (AI) virus among commercial poultry farms in western Virginia during an outbreak in 2002.

Design—Case-control study.

Procedure—Questionnaires were used to collect information about farm characteristics, biosecurity measures, and husbandry practices on 151 infected premises (128 turkey and 23 chicken farms) and 199 noninfected premises (167 turkey and 32 chicken farms).

Results—The most significant risk factor for AI infection was disposal of dead birds by rendering (odds ratio [OR], 7.3). In addition, age ≥ 10 weeks (OR for birds aged 10 to 19 weeks, 4.9; OR for birds aged ≥ 20 weeks, 4.3) was a significant risk factor regardless of poultry species involved. Other significant risk factors included use of nonfamily caretakers and the presence of mammalian wildlife on the farm. Factors that were not significantly associated with infection included use of various routine biosecurity measures, food and litter sources, types of domestic animals on the premises, and presence of wild birds on the premises.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that an important factor contributing to rapid early spread of AI virus infection among commercial poultry farms during this outbreak was disposal of dead birds via rendering off-farm. Because of the highly infectious nature of AI virus and the devastating economic impact of outbreaks, poultry farmers should consider carcass disposal techniques that do not require offfarm movement, such as burial, composting, or incineration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:767–772)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association