Objective—To estimate prevalence of fecal shedding
of Salmonella spp among horses in the US horse population
and prevalence of Salmonella spp in grain or
other concentrate used as horse feed on equine operations
in the United States.
Sample Population—Horses on 972 operations in 28
Procedure—Fecal samples were collected from horses
resident at each operation. Only a single sample
was collected from any individual horse; number of
horses from which samples were collected on each
operation was determined on the basis of number of
horses on the operation. A single sample of grain or
concentrate was also collected from each operation.
All samples were tested for Salmonella spp by means
of bacterial culture.
Results—Overall, 0.8% (SE, 0.5) of resident horses
shed Salmonella spp in their feces. The overall prevalence
of operations positive for fecal shedding of
Salmonella spp (ie, operations with ≥ 1 horse shedding
Salmonella spp in its feces) was 1.8% (SE, 0.7).
Prevalence of grain or other concentrate samples positive
for Salmonella spp was 0.4%. Serotypes of
Salmonella spp that were identified in grain or other
concentrate were not those typically associated with
clinical disease in horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that the national prevalence of fecal shedding of
Salmonella spp by horses in the United States was
0.8%, and that prevalence of Salmonella spp in grain
or other concentrate used for horse feed was 0.4%.(J
Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:226–230)
Objective—To estimate the national incidence of,
operation-level risk factors for, and annual economic
impact of colic among horses in the United States
during 1998 and 1999.
Animals—21,820 horses on 1,026 horse operations
in 28 states.
Procedures—Horses were monitored for colic for 1
year, and results were recorded in a log that was collected
quarterly. Operation-level data were collected
via 4 on-site personal interviews. Associations
between colic and independent variables adjusted for
size of operation were determined.
Results—Annual national incidence of colic in the US
horse population was estimated to be 4.2 colic
events/100 horses per year. Case fatality rate was
11%, and 1.4% of colic events resulted in surgery.
Annual cost of colic in the Unites States was estimated
to be $115,300,000.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The national
impact of equine colic is substantial because of the
high case fatality rate. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;
Objective—To identify factors associated with excessive
proportions of early fetal losses associated with
mare reproductive loss syndrome in central Kentucky
Procedure—Questionnaires were used to collect
information on farm-, pasture-, and individual animallevel
factors purportedly associated with mare reproductive
loss syndrome. Data were collected for 133
farms (97 with excessive proportions of early fetal
losses and 36 control farms) representing 6,576
Results—Factors significantly associated with an
increased risk of excessive early fetal losses were
exposure to moderate to high concentrations of
Eastern tent caterpillars, exposure to cherry trees,
farm size ≥ 50 broodmares, being bred during
February 2001, and frequent exposure to waterfowl.
Feeding hay to mares outside was associated with a
decreased risk of excessive proportions of early fetal
losses. Pasture composition and management factors
were not significantly different between affected
and control pastures. Individual animal-level factors
were investigated on 6 farms representing 340
mares, and age, parity, and pre- and postbreeding
treatments were not significantly associated with risk
of early fetal loss.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that limiting exposure to Eastern tent caterpillars
and cherry trees and feeding hay to mares outside
may help decrease the risk of excessive proportions
of early fetal losses associated with mare reproductive
loss syndrome. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:
Objective—To identify factors associated with use of a veterinarian by small-scale food animal operations.
Design—Cross-sectional descriptive survey.
Sample—16,000 small-scale farm or ranch operations in all 50 states.
Procedures—Surveys were conducted via mail or telephone during 2011 for small-scale operations (gross annual agricultural sales between $10,000 and $499,999) in which an animal or animal product comprised the highest percentage of annual sales.
Results—8,186 (51.2%) operations responded to the survey; 7,849 surveys met the inclusion criteria. For 6,511 (83.0%) operations, beef cattle were the primary animal species. An estimated 82.1% of operations (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.1% to 83.0%) had a veterinarian available ≤ 29 miles away; 1.4% (95% CI, 1.2% to 1.7%) did not have a veterinarian available within 100 miles of the operation. Operations for which the nearest veterinarian was ≥ 100 miles away or for which a veterinarian was not available were located in 40 US states. Overall, 61.7% of operations (95% CI, 60.6% to 62.9%) had used a veterinarian during the 12 months prior to the survey. Producers with college degrees were significantly more likely to use a veterinarian (675%) versus those who did not complete high school (52.9%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated most small-scale operations had adequate access to veterinarians during 2011, but there seemed to be localized shortages of veterinarians in many states.
Objective—To identify risk factors associated with the spread of low pathogenicity H7N2 avian influenza (AI) virus among commercial poultry farms in western Virginia during an outbreak in 2002.
Procedure—Questionnaires were used to collect information about farm characteristics, biosecurity measures, and husbandry practices on 151 infected premises (128 turkey and 23 chicken farms) and 199 noninfected premises (167 turkey and 32 chicken farms).
Results—The most significant risk factor for AI infection was disposal of dead birds by rendering (odds ratio [OR], 7.3). In addition, age ≥ 10 weeks (OR for birds aged 10 to 19 weeks, 4.9; OR for birds aged ≥ 20 weeks, 4.3) was a significant risk factor regardless of poultry species involved. Other significant risk factors included use of nonfamily caretakers and the presence of mammalian wildlife on the farm. Factors that were not significantly associated with infection included use of various routine biosecurity measures, food and litter sources, types of domestic animals on the premises, and presence of wild birds on the premises.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that an important factor contributing to rapid early spread of AI virus infection among commercial poultry farms during this outbreak was disposal of dead birds via rendering off-farm. Because of the highly infectious nature of AI virus and the devastating economic impact of outbreaks, poultry farmers should consider carcass disposal techniques that do not require offfarm movement, such as burial, composting, or incineration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:767–772)