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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize the clinical features, treatment, and outcome of aural hematomas in horses.

ANIMALS

7 horses with 1 or 2 aural hematomas (8 ears in total) treated at a veterinary teaching hospital in 2008 through 2019.

PROCEDURES

Data retrieved from medical records included signalment, pertinent historical information, clinical signs, diagnostic procedures (including dermatologic assessment), and treatments. Case outcome was determined from documentation in the medical record or via telephone communication with owners or referring veterinarians.

RESULTS

3 horses were presented after recurrence of aural hematoma following treatment by the referring veterinarian. Four horses had a history of allergic skin disease prior to aural hematoma development. Most (6/7) horses were unilaterally affected. Diagnostic assessments included otoscopic evaluation (3 horses), ultrasonography (3 horses), cytologic examination of ear canal swab samples (3 horses), and histologic examination of a pinnal biopsy specimen (1 horse). Of the 8 pinnae, 2 were treated by nonsurgical needle drainage (1 with concurrent corticosteroid injection) and the remaining 6 underwent surgical incision and placement of compressive sutures. Follow-up information was available for 6 horses, and all affected pinnae were fibrotic with 4 horses having permanent drooping of the pinna. One horse developed a hematoma in the contralateral pinna 1 year after hospital discharge.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Equine aural hematoma is a rare condition. The main principle of treatment is drainage, and treatment options commonly used in small animal practice can be successfully applied in horses. Permanent changes in the cosmetic appearance of the pinna are likely to develop owing to secondary fibrosis.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the effects of recombinant equine IL-1β on function of equine endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) in vitro.

SAMPLE

ECFCs derived from peripheral blood samples of 3 healthy adult geldings.

PROCEDURES

Function testing was performed to assess in vitro wound healing, tubule formation, cell adhesion, and uptake of 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′ tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate–labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL) by cultured ECFCs. Cell proliferation was determined by 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide assay. Effects on function test results of different concentrations and exposure times of recombinant equine IL-1β were assessed.

RESULTS

Challenge of cultured ECFCs with IL-1β for 48 hours inhibited tubule formation. Continuous challenge (54 hours) with IL-1β in the wound healing assay reduced gap closure. The IL-1β exposure did not significantly affect ECFC adhesion, DiI-Ac-LDL uptake, or ECFC proliferation.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

These results suggested a role for IL-1β in the inhibition of ECFC function in vitro. Functional changes in ECFCs following challenge with IL-1β did not appear to be due to changes in cell proliferative capacity. These findings have implications for designing microenvironments for and optimizing therapeutic effects of ECFCs used to treat ischemic diseases in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess onset of analgesia for 3% chloroprocaine hydrochloride and 2% mepivacaine hydrochloride when used for median and ulnar nerve blocks in lame horses.

ANIMALS

6 naturally lame horses.

PROCEDURES

A crossover experiment was conducted. Horses were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (3% chloroprocaine or 2% mepivacaine first). Median and ulnar nerve blocks were performed in the lame limb with the assigned treatment. Lameness was objectively evaluated before treatment administration and at various points for 120 minutes after treatment with a wireless inertial sensor-based motion analysis system. Following a 7-day washout period, horses then received the other treatment and lameness evaluations were repeated.

RESULTS

Median and ulnar nerve blocks performed with 3% chloroprocaine resulted in more consistent, rapid, and profound amelioration of lameness than did blocks performed with 2% mepivacaine. Lameness decreased more between 20 and 40 minutes after injection when 3% chloroprocaine was used than when 2% mepivacaine was used. Complete resolution of lameness was detected a mean of 9 minutes after injection when median and ulnar nerve blocks were performed with 3% chloroprocaine and a mean of 28 minutes after injection when performed with 2% mepivacaine.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

3% chloroprocaine had a more rapid onset and provided better analgesia for median and ulnar nerve blocks in horses with naturally occurring lameness, compared with 2% mepivacaine. These favorable properties suggest that 3% chloroprocaine would be useful for performance of median and ulnar regional nerve blocks during complicated lameness evaluations.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effect of exposure to a balanced electrolyte solution (BES), or equine abdominal fat on the knot-holding capacity (KHC), relative knot security (RKS), weight, and volume of forwarder knots versus surgeon's knots.

SAMPLE

315 knots tied and tested in vitro.

PROCEDURES

United States Pharmacopeia size-3 polyglactin 910 suture exposed to air (dry [control]), equine abdominal fat (fat-exposed), or BES (BES-exposed) was used to tie forwarder knots with 2, 3, and 4 throws and surgeon's knots with 5, 6, 7, and 8 throws. A universal materials testing machine was used to test the tensile strength of suture and knots to failure, and the KHC, RKS, weight, and volume of knots were determined.

RESULTS

Forwarder knots had significantly higher KHC and RKS and lower volume, compared with surgeons’ knots. Forwarder knots tied with fat-exposed suture had greater weight, but not volume, than did forwarder knots tied with dry or BES-exposed suture with the same number of throws.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that forwarder knots were superior to surgeon's knots when configured as start knots intended for continuous lines of suture. Exposure to media did not negatively affect mechanical or physical properties of forwarder knots and may improve specific biomechanical functions, including KHC and RKS.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research