A 37-year-old 2.0-kg (4.4-lb) sexually intact female African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) was found dead following a 2-day period of isolation from its exhibit mates as a consequence of recent conspecific-induced trauma that resulted in abrasions around its beak and forehead. The penguin had a history of degenerative joint disease, respiratory tract issues, and wounds inflicted by other penguins, but had not had any health issues during the preceding 2 to 3 years. The penguin had no other obvious problems and none of its exhibit mates had signs of illness.
A 3-year-old hen with a 1-month history of a mass on the left naris that bled intermittently was euthanized and submitted for necropsy to the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine.
Clinical and Gross Findings
At necropsy, there was a 15 × 15 × 5-mm, firm, raised, crusted, dark brown-black mass on the skin of the left side of the face between the left naris and the left eye (Figure 1). On cut section, the mass extended into the maxilla and filled the left and right nasal cavities. Multiple black nodules ranging from 1 mm to
A 30-year-old 468-kg (1,030-lb) American Paint gelding was evaluated at the University of Tennessee Veterinary Medical Center because of signs of colic. The horse had no previous history of colic. The owner reported that the horse had no clinical signs the night before, but was found sweating and shaking in its stall the next morning. There were signs that the horse had been rolling on the ground and had inflicted head trauma. The owner had administered flunixin megluminea (10 mL, IV), but when the horse's condition failed to improve, it was brought to the hospital.
A 4.5-week-old 5.7-kg (12.5-lb) Yorkshire-Berkshire crossbred piglet was submitted for necropsy after it died on a farm. The piglet had a brief history of lethargy, dyspnea, decreased appetite, and loose feces (exact duration of clinical signs not provided). The piglet came from a farm that had 17 other pigs. Two piglets had previously died, and 2 others were sick.
The piglet was in good nutritional condition, with a body condition score of 3/5. The liver was orange and flaccid with mottled red and black areas (Figure 1). The liver weighed 101.5 g (1.79% of body
Four approximately 6-week-old bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were submitted for necropsy. The quail were from a production flock of approximately 30,000 in which there had been 15 deaths over 2 weeks. The quail were confined to an open barn, where the flock colony grazed and was fed a game bird maintenance feed. The quail did not have a history of vaccinations, and there was no known exposure to any toxins.
All 4 quail had similar gross findings that consisted of tan to yellow, pinpoint to 4-mm-diameter, raised rough plaques on the mucosa of the small
A 10-year-old 67.5-kg (148.5-lb; body condition score, 4/9) castrated male Mastiff was evaluated by a primary care veterinarian because of perianal ulcers and generalized muscle wasting with subsequent weight loss of several months' duration. A presumptive diagnosis of perianal fistulas was made, and prednisone, a topical antibacterial and antifungal ointment,a and cephalexin were prescribed. The lesion in the perianal skin was reported to improve with medical treatment, but the dog became hyporexic at this time. Because of continued hyporexia and weight loss, the prednisone was changed to cyclosporine capsules.b After no improvement in hyporexia or
An 11-year-old 4.5-kg (9.9-lb) neutered male domestic shorthair cat was referred to the ophthalmology department at VCA Veterinary Care Animal Hospital and Referral Center because of superior eyelid entropion and a corneal ulcer in the left eye of several weeks' duration.
Clinical and Gross Findings
Ophthalmic examination findings included positive pupillary light reflexes, positive menace responses, and normal intraocular pressures in both eyes. The remainder of the examination findings for the right eye were unremarkable. In the left eye, the superior eyelid had severe entropion with trichiasis. The eyelids were restricted such that the palpebral reflex was absent and
A 7-year-old 5.31-kg (11.68-lb) castrated male American Shorthair was admitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Tennessee for evaluation of vomiting, lethargy, and anorexia of 3 days' duration. The cat was allowed indoor and outdoor access, and its vaccination status was current. The cat regularly received heartworm and flea preventatives. Previous history included urinary tract infections, but none had developed in the preceding 4 years.
Clinical and Gross Findings
The cat had a body condition score of 7 (scale of 9), and the remainder of the physical examination findings were considered normal. A CBC revealed
A captive 13-year-old castrated male African lion (Panthera leo) housed at a large cat sanctuary for the previous 5 years was found dead within its enclosure, and the carcass was submitted to the University of Tennessee Veterinary Medical Center for autopsy. This animal seemed to be healthy in the days preceding its death and had no notable medical history.
At autopsy, the lion weighed 208.5 kg (458.7 lb) and was obese (body condition score, 5/5) with abundant subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. The pericardial sac contained 350 mL of thin, clear, pale yellow fluid. Affecting
Objective—To determine whether severity of leukocytosis
correlates with severity of postmortem
lesions in dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic
Animals—34 dogs with IMHA that had CBC performed
within 48 hours prior to death and complete
Procedure—Dogs were independently assigned to 4
leukocytosis groups (within reference range; mild
leukocytosis, moderate leukocytosis, marked leukocytosis)
and 3 lesion severity groups (mild lesions,
moderate lesions, severe lesions).
Results—Moderate to marked leukocytosis correlated
with moderate to severe postmortem lesions.
Ischemic necrosis within liver, kidney, heart, lung, and
spleen attributable to thromboembolic disease or anemic
hypoxia were the most common important
lesions found at necropsy. None of the dogs with mild
lesions had moderate or marked leukocytosis. Four of
14 severely affected dogs had WBC counts within reference
range, but all 4 had neutrophilic left shifts.
Three of these 4 dogs had toxic change in neutrophils.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Moderate to
marked leukocytosis, neutrophilic left shift, and toxic
change in neutrophils in dogs with IMHA should alert
clinicians to the potential for moderate to severe tissue
injury, which could complicate treatment and
worsen prognosis. Lesions appear to be secondary to
anemic hypoxia, thromboembolic disease, or both;
therefore, treatment objectives should focus on
improving blood oxygen-carrying capacity and monitoring
for thromboembolic disease. (J Am Vet Med