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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

During the first part of a study, cats were inoculated with Cryptococcus neoformans via the following routes: intradermal, intranasal, iv, and intracisternal. Only use of the iv route of inoculation consistently induced disseminated cryptococcosis. In the second part of the study, disseminated cryptococcosis was experimentally induced in cats via iv inoculation of C neoformans. One month after inoculation, 3 cats were treated with ketoconazole (10 mg/kg of body weight/d) and 3 cats were treated with itraconazole (10 mg/kg/d) for 3 months. One of the ketoconzole-treated and 2 of the itraconazole-treated cats also had cryptococcosis of the cns when treatment was begun. During treatment, serum cryptococcal antigen titer progressively decreased in all cats. Abnormalities in cbc values or the serum biochemical profile were not found in any cat during treatment. However, all ketoconazole-treated cats became anorectic and lost weight. Side effects were not seen in itraconazole-treated cats. During the 3-month posttreatment observation period, all cats remained healthy. At necropsy, histologic evidence of cryptococcosis was not found in the 3 ketoconazole-treated cats or in 2 of the itraconazole-treated cats. In the third itraconazole-treated cat, cryptococcal organisms were found in the kidneys.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To evaluate the efficacy of daily administration of ivermectin in the treatment of dogs with amitraz-resistant generalized demodicosis.

Design—

Prospective, clinical trial.

Animals—

Twelve privately owned dogs with juvenileonset or adult-onset generalized demodicosis that had failed to respond to biweekly or weekly applications of 0.025% amitraz solution.

Procedure—

All dogs were treated with undiluted ivermectin at a dosage of 0.6 mg/kg of body weight, po, every 24 hours. There was no other parasiticidal agent given topically or systemically. A physical examination and multiple skin scrapings were performed every 2 to 4 weeks while dogs were receiving ivermectin. Skin scrapings were performed at approximately the same sites at every examination. After no mites were seen, treatment was continued for at least 2 more weeks and then stopped. Dogs were reexamined, and skin scrapings were repeated if any skin lesions developed. For dogs that remained clinically normal, follow-up information was obtained by telephone. Dogs that were free of clinical signs of demodicosis 12 months after ivermectin administration was discontinued were considered cured.

Results—

Ten of 12 dogs were cured. Median duration of treatment for these dogs was 10 weeks (range, 6 weeks to 5 months). Two dogs were failures, relapsing 10 months and 11.5 months after treatment was stopped. One of these dogs was successfully treated with a second course of ivermectin. Mild ivermectin toxicosis developed in 1 dog after 6 weeks of treatment; side effects resolved shortly after the treatment was stopped.

Clinical Implications—

Daily use of ivermectin, at a dosage of 0.6 mg/kg, PO, was found to be effective in the treatment of generalized demodicosis in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A commercial cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination test was used to evaluate sera from 20 cats with cryptococcosis and 184 cats without cryptococcosis. Cryptococcal antigen was detected in the sera from 19 of 20 cats with cryptococcosis. Antigen was not detected in sera from any of the cats without cryptococcosis. The test had sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 100%.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Dog foods with similar claims for nutritional adequacy were tested by chemical analysis and the American Association of Feed Control Officials’ growth trial. All foods tested were similar chemically, however, dogs given one regionally marketed food had lower growth rate and food efficiency as well as suboptimal pcv and hemoglobin values during the growth trial. Pups fed this diet also had clinical signs typical of zinc and copper deficiencies. We concluded that American Association of Feed Control Officials’ approved feeding tests provide valid assessment of pet food quality, and procedures involving only chemical analysis or calculated values may not.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether topical application of a 10% fipronil solution would control signs of flea allergic dermatitis in cats housed under natural conditions.

Design—Multicenter open clinical trial.

Animals—42 client-owned cats with flea allergic dermatitis.

Procedures—Study cats along with all other cats and dogs living in the same houses were treated with 10% fipronil solution topically on days 0, 30, and 60. Flea counts and clinical assessments were performed on study cats on days 0, 14, 30, 60, and 90.

Results—Percentage reductions in geometric mean flea counts on days 14, 30, 60, and 90, compared with day-0 geometric mean count, were 75, 73, 85, and 94%, respectively. Pruritus score was significantly improved at each examination after day 0, and pruritus was reduced or eliminated in 31 of 40 (78%) cats at the final examination. Similarly, scores for severity of miliary dermatitis and alopecia were significantly improved at each examination, except for alopecia score on day 14. Overall treatment efficacy, assessed on day 90, was excellent for 28 (70%) cats, good for 6 (15%), moderate for 3 (7.5%), and poor for 3 (7.5%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that monthly topical application of fipronil is effective for treatment of flea allergic dermatitis in cats housed under natural conditions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:254–257)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association