Objective—To describe patterns of seroconversion to
bovine coronavirus (BCV) and shedding of BCV from
the respiratory tract in feedlot cattle.
Animals—1,074 calves in feedlots in Ohio, Texas, and
Procedure—Nasal swab specimens were obtained at
time of arrival (day 0) and at various times during the
initial 28 days after arrival at feedlots. Specimens
were tested for BCV, using an antigen-capture ELISA.
Serum samples were obtained at time of arrival and
again 28 days after arrival; sera were analyzed for antibodies
to BCV, using an antibody-detection ELISA.
Results—Samples from 12 groups of cattle entering
7 feedlots during a 3-year period revealed that 78 of
1,074 (7.3%) cattle were shedding BCV (range, 0 to
35.9% within specific groups). At time of arrival, 508
of 814 (62.4%) cattle had low (< 50) or undetectable
BCV antibody titers. Seroconversion to BCV during
the initial 28 days after arrival was detected in 473 of
814 (58%) cattle tested (range, 20.3 to 84.1% within
specific groups). In cattle shedding BCV from the
nasal passages, 49 of 68 (72.1%) seroconverted, and
472 of 746 (63.3%) cattle that were not shedding the
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bovine coronavirus
can be detected in populations of feedlot cattle
in the form of viral shedding as well as seroconversion
to the virus. Although only a few cattle were
shedding the virus at the time of arrival at a feedlot,
most of the cattle seroconverted to BCV by 28 days
after arrival. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1057–1061)
Objective—To compare shedding patterns and serologic responses to bovine coronavirus (BCV) in feedlot calves shipped from a single ranch in New Mexico (NM calves) versus calves assembled from local sale barns in Arkansas (AR calves) and to evaluate the role of BCV on disease and performance.
Animals—103 feedlot calves from New Mexico and 100 from Arkansas.
Procedures—Calves were studied from before shipping to 35 days after arrival at the feedlot. Nasal swab specimens, fecal samples, and serum samples were obtained before shipping, at arrival, and periodically thereafter. Bovine coronavirus antigen and antibodies were detected by use of an ELISA.
Results—NM calves had a high geometric mean titer for BCV antibody at arrival (GMT, 1,928); only 2% shed BCV in nasal secretions and 1% in feces. In contrast, AR calves had low antibody titers against BCV at arrival (GMT, 102) and 64% shed BCV in nasal secretions and 65% in feces. Detection of BCV in nasal secretions preceded detection in feces before shipping AR calves, but at arrival, 73% of AR calves were shedding BCV in nasal secretions and feces. Bovine coronavirus infection was significantly associated with respiratory tract disease and decreased growth performance in AR calves.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Replication and shedding of BCV may start in the upper respiratory tract and spread to the gastrointestinal tract. Vaccination of calves against BCV before shipping to feedlots may provide protection against BCV infection and its effects with other pathogens in the induction of respiratory tract disease.
Objective—To assess fecal and nasal shedding patterns
of bovine torovirus (BoTV) in cattle at time of
arrival and periodically throughout the first 21 days
after arrival at a feedlot.
Procedure—Fecal and nasal-swab samples collected
on days 0, 4, 14, and 21 after arrival were tested for
BoTV, using ELISA. A subset of samples from calves
testing positive and negative for BoTV was analyzed,
using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction
(RT-PCR). Paired serum samples were collected on
days 0 and 21 and tested for BoTV antibodies, using
a hemagglutination inhibition assay.
Results—Overall rate of fecal shedding of BoTV was
21 of 57 (37%) by ELISA and 40 of 42 (95%) by
RT-PCR with peak shedding on day 4. Diarrhea was
more common in calves shedding BoTV than those
not shedding the virus (odds ratio, 1.72). Overall rate
of nasal shedding of BoTV was 15 of 57 (26%) by
ELISA and 42 of 42 (100%) by RT-PCR, with peak
shedding on day 0. Specificity of the RT-PCR product
was confirmed by sequence analysis. Approximately
93% of the calves seroconverted to BoTV (> 4-fold
increase in titer). Differences were not detected
between calves shedding BoTV and nonshedders in
relation to disease and treatments, perhaps because
of the low number of cattle in the study.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study
confirmed BoTV infections in feedlot cattle, including
BoTV antigen and viral RNA in nasal secretions, and
the shedding pattern during the first 21 days after
arrival in a feedlot. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:342–348).
Objective—To assess the relationship between shedding
of bovine coronavirus (BCV) via the respiratory
tract and enteric routes and the association with
weight gain in feedlot cattle.
Animals—56 crossbred steers.
Procedures—Paired fecal samples and nasal swab
specimens were obtained and were tested for BCV,
using antigen-capture ELISA. Paired serum samples
obtained were tested for antibodies to BCV, using
antibody-detection ELISA. Information was collected
on weight gain, clinical signs, and treatments for
enteric and respiratory tract disease during the study
Results—Number of samples positive for bovine respiratory
coronavirus (BRCV) or bovine enteric coro
navirus (BECV) was 37/224 (17%) and 48/223 (22%),
respectively. Some cattle (25/46, 45%) shed BECV
and BRCV. There were 25/29 (86%) cattle positive for
BECV that shed BRCV, but only 1/27 (4%) cattle negative
to BECV shed BRCV. Twenty-seven of 48 (56%)
paired nasal swab specimens and fecal samples positive
for BECV were positive for BRCV. In contrast,
only 10/175 (6%) paired nasal swab specimens and
fecal samples negative for BECV were positive for
BRCV. Only shedding of BECV was associated with
significantly reduced weight gain. Seroconversion to
BCV during the 21 days after arrival was detected in
95% of the cattle tested.
Conclusions and Clinical Implications—Feedlot
cattle infected with BCV after transport shed BCV
from the respiratory tract and in the feces. Fecal
shedding of BCV was associated with significantly
reduced weight gain. Developing appropriate control
measures for BCV infections could help reduce the
decreased weight gain observed among infected
feedlot cattle. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1436–1441)
Objective—To determine the prevalence, fecal shedding
pattern, and association of bovine torovirus
(BoTV) with diarrhea in veal calves at time of arrival
and periodically throughout the first 35 days after their
arrival on a veal farm.
Animals—62 veal calves.
Procedure—Fecal samples collected on days 0, 4, 14,
and 35 after arrival were tested for BoTV by use of
ELISA and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain
reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Paired serum samples
obtained from blood collected on days 0 and 35 were
analyzed for BoTV antibodies with a hemagglutination
inhibition assay. Fecal samples were also screened
for other enteric pathogens, including rotavirus, coronavirus,
and Cryptosporidium spp.
Results—Fecal shedding of BoTV was detected in 15
of 62 (24%) calves by use of ELISA and RT-PCR assay,
with peak shedding on day 4. A significant independent
association between BoTV shedding and diarrhea
was observed. In addition, calves shedding ≥ 2
enteric pathogens were more likely to have diarrhea
than calves shedding ≤ 1 pathogen. Calves that were
seronegative or had low antibody titers against BoTV
(≤ 1:10 hemagglutination inhibition units) at arrival
seroconverted to BoTV (> 4-fold increase in titer);
these calves were more likely to shed virus than
calves that were seropositive against BoTV at arrival.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Shedding of
BoTV was strongly associated with diarrhea in neonatal
veal calves during the first week after arrival at the
farm. These data provide evidence that BoTV is an
important pathogen of neonatal veal calves.
(Am J Vet Res 2003;64:485–490)
Objective—To determine the association between
respiratory tract infection with bovine coronavirus
(BCV), treatment for respiratory tract disease, pulmonary
lesions at slaughter, and average daily gain in
cattle in feedlots.
Animals—837 calves in feedlots in Ohio and Texas.
Procedure—Nasal swab specimens were obtained
from cattle at arrival in a feedlot (day 0) and at various
times during the initial 28 days after arrival.
Specimens were tested for BCV, using an antigencapture
ELISA. Serum samples were obtained at
arrival and again 28 days after arrival and tested for
antibodies to BCV, using an antibody-detection ELISA.
Information was collected regarding treatment for
cattle with respiratory tract disease and average daily
gain during the feeding period. Pulmonary lesions
were evaluated at slaughter.
Results—Cattle shedding BCV from the nasal cavity
and developing an antibody response against BCV
were 1.6 times more likely to require treatment for
respiratory tract disease than cattle that did not shed
the virus or develop an immune response against
BCV. Additionally, cattle that shed BCV from the nasal
cavity were 2.2 times more likely to have pulmonary
lesions at slaughter than cattle that did not shed the
virus. The BCV shedding or seroconversion status did
not affect average daily gain.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bovine coronavirus
infects feedlot cattle and is associated with an
increased risk for cattle developing respiratory tract
disease and pulmonary lesions. Development of
appropriate control measures could help reduce the
incidence of respiratory tract disease. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To investigate effects of low dietary vitamin A content on antibody responses in feedlot calves inoculated with an inactivated bovine coronavirus (BCoV) vaccine.
Animals—40 feedlot calves.
Procedures—Calves were fed diets containing high (3,300 U/kg) or low (1,100 U/kg) amounts of vitamin A beginning on the day of arrival at a feedlot (day 0) and continuing daily until the end of the study (day 140). Serum retinol concentrations were evaluated in blood samples obtained throughout the study. Calves were inoculated IM with an inactivated BCoV vaccine on days 112 and 126. Blood samples obtained on days 112 and 140 were used for assessment of BCoV-specific serum IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA titers via an ELISA.
Results—The low vitamin A diet reduced serum retinol concentrations between days 112 and 140. After the BCoV inoculation and booster injections, predominantly serum IgG1 antibodies were induced in calves fed the high vitamin A diet; however, IgG1 titers were compromised at day 140 in calves fed the low vitamin A diet. Other isotype antibodies specific for BCoV were not affected by the low vitamin A diet.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dietary vitamin A restriction increases marbling in feedlot cattle; however, its effect on antibody responses to vaccines is unknown. A low vitamin A diet compromised the serum IgG1 responses against inactivated BCoV vaccine, which suggested suppressed T-helper 2-associated antibody (IgG1) responses. Thus, low vitamin A diets may compromise the effectiveness of viral vaccines and render calves more susceptible to infectious disease.