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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare results of a commercially available device for oscillometrically measured blood pressure (OBP) with invasively measured blood pressure (IBP) in awake and anesthetized dogs.

ANIMALS

19 adult dogs (mean ± SD body weight, 17.8 ± 7.5 kg).

PROCEDURES

Blood pressures were measured in dogs while they were awake and anesthetized with isoflurane. The OBP was recorded on a thoracic limb, and IBP was simultaneously recorded from the median caudal artery. Agreement between OBP and IBP was evaluated with the Bland-Altman method. Guidelines of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) were used for validation of the oscillometric device.

RESULTS

In awake dogs, mean bias of the oscillometric device was −11.12 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement [LOA], −61.14 to 38.90 mm Hg) for systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), 9.39 mm Hg (LOA, −28.26 to 47.04 mm Hg) for diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAP), and −0.85 mm Hg (LOA, −40.54 to 38.84 mm Hg) for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). In anesthetized dogs, mean bias was −12.27 mm Hg (LOA, −47.36 to 22.82 mm Hg) for SAP, −3.92 mm Hg (LOA, −25.28 to 17.44 mm Hg) for DAP, and −7.89 mm Hg (LOA, −32.31 to 16.53 mm Hg) for MAP. The oscillometric device did not fulfill ACVIM guidelines for the validation of such devices.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Agreement between OBP and IBP results for awake and anesthetized dogs was poor. The oscillometric blood pressure device did not fulfill ACVIM guidelines for validation. Therefore, clinical use of this device cannot be recommended.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of meloxicam on values of hematologic and plasma biochemical analysis variables and results of histologic examination of tissue specimens of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

Animals—30 adult Japanese quail.

Procedures—15 quail underwent laparoscopic examination of the left kidneys, and 15 quail underwent laparoscopic examination and biopsy of the left kidneys. Quail in each of these groups received meloxicam (2.0 mg/kg, IM, q 12 h; n = 10) or a saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.05 mL, IM, q 12 h; control birds; 5) for 14 days. A CBC and plasma biochemical analyses were performed at the start of the study and within 3 hours after the last treatment. Birds were euthanized and necropsies were performed.

Results—No adverse effects of treatments were observed, and no significant changes in values of hematologic variables were detected during the study. Plasma uric acid concentrations and creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activities were significantly different before versus after treatment for some groups of birds. Gross lesions identified during necropsy included lesions at renal biopsy sites and adjacent air sacs (attributed to the biopsy procedure) and pectoral muscle hemorrhage and discoloration (at sites of injection). Substantial histopathologic lesions were limited to pectoral muscle necrosis, and severity was greater for meloxicam-treated versus control birds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Meloxicam (2.0 mg/kg, IM, q 12 h for 14 days) did not cause substantial alterations in function of or histopathologic findings for the kidneys of Japanese quail but did induce muscle necrosis; repeated IM administration of meloxicam to quail may be contraindicated.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence, fecal shedding pattern, and association of bovine torovirus (BoTV) with diarrhea in veal calves at time of arrival and periodically throughout the first 35 days after their arrival on a veal farm.

Animals—62 veal calves.

Procedure—Fecal samples collected on days 0, 4, 14, and 35 after arrival were tested for BoTV by use of ELISA and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Paired serum samples obtained from blood collected on days 0 and 35 were analyzed for BoTV antibodies with a hemagglutination inhibition assay. Fecal samples were also screened for other enteric pathogens, including rotavirus, coronavirus, and Cryptosporidium spp.

Results—Fecal shedding of BoTV was detected in 15 of 62 (24%) calves by use of ELISA and RT-PCR assay, with peak shedding on day 4. A significant independent association between BoTV shedding and diarrhea was observed. In addition, calves shedding ≥ 2 enteric pathogens were more likely to have diarrhea than calves shedding ≤ 1 pathogen. Calves that were seronegative or had low antibody titers against BoTV (≤ 1:10 hemagglutination inhibition units) at arrival seroconverted to BoTV (> 4-fold increase in titer); these calves were more likely to shed virus than calves that were seropositive against BoTV at arrival.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Shedding of BoTV was strongly associated with diarrhea in neonatal veal calves during the first week after arrival at the farm. These data provide evidence that BoTV is an important pathogen of neonatal veal calves. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:485–490)

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research