Blood pressures were measured in dogs while they were awake and anesthetized with isoflurane. The OBP was recorded on a thoracic limb, and IBP was simultaneously recorded from the median caudal artery. Agreement between OBP and IBP was evaluated with the Bland-Altman method. Guidelines of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) were used for validation of the oscillometric device.
In awake dogs, mean bias of the oscillometric device was −11.12 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement [LOA], −61.14 to 38.90 mm Hg) for systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), 9.39 mm Hg (LOA, −28.26 to 47.04 mm Hg) for diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAP), and −0.85 mm Hg (LOA, −40.54 to 38.84 mm Hg) for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). In anesthetized dogs, mean bias was −12.27 mm Hg (LOA, −47.36 to 22.82 mm Hg) for SAP, −3.92 mm Hg (LOA, −25.28 to 17.44 mm Hg) for DAP, and −7.89 mm Hg (LOA, −32.31 to 16.53 mm Hg) for MAP. The oscillometric device did not fulfill ACVIM guidelines for the validation of such devices.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Agreement between OBP and IBP results for awake and anesthetized dogs was poor. The oscillometric blood pressure device did not fulfill ACVIM guidelines for validation. Therefore, clinical use of this device cannot be recommended.
Objective—To determine the prevalence, fecal shedding
pattern, and association of bovine torovirus
(BoTV) with diarrhea in veal calves at time of arrival
and periodically throughout the first 35 days after their
arrival on a veal farm.
Animals—62 veal calves.
Procedure—Fecal samples collected on days 0, 4, 14,
and 35 after arrival were tested for BoTV by use of
ELISA and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain
reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Paired serum samples
obtained from blood collected on days 0 and 35 were
analyzed for BoTV antibodies with a hemagglutination
inhibition assay. Fecal samples were also screened
for other enteric pathogens, including rotavirus, coronavirus,
and Cryptosporidium spp.
Results—Fecal shedding of BoTV was detected in 15
of 62 (24%) calves by use of ELISA and RT-PCR assay,
with peak shedding on day 4. A significant independent
association between BoTV shedding and diarrhea
was observed. In addition, calves shedding ≥ 2
enteric pathogens were more likely to have diarrhea
than calves shedding ≤ 1 pathogen. Calves that were
seronegative or had low antibody titers against BoTV
(≤ 1:10 hemagglutination inhibition units) at arrival
seroconverted to BoTV (> 4-fold increase in titer);
these calves were more likely to shed virus than
calves that were seropositive against BoTV at arrival.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Shedding of
BoTV was strongly associated with diarrhea in neonatal
veal calves during the first week after arrival at the
farm. These data provide evidence that BoTV is an
important pathogen of neonatal veal calves.
(Am J Vet Res 2003;64:485–490)
Objective—To determine the effects of meloxicam on values of hematologic and plasma biochemical analysis variables and results of histologic examination of tissue specimens of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).
Animals—30 adult Japanese quail.
Procedures—15 quail underwent laparoscopic examination of the left kidneys, and 15 quail underwent laparoscopic examination and biopsy of the left kidneys. Quail in each of these groups received meloxicam (2.0 mg/kg, IM, q 12 h; n = 10) or a saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.05 mL, IM, q 12 h; control birds; 5) for 14 days. A CBC and plasma biochemical analyses were performed at the start of the study and within 3 hours after the last treatment. Birds were euthanized and necropsies were performed.
Results—No adverse effects of treatments were observed, and no significant changes in values of hematologic variables were detected during the study. Plasma uric acid concentrations and creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activities were significantly different before versus after treatment for some groups of birds. Gross lesions identified during necropsy included lesions at renal biopsy sites and adjacent air sacs (attributed to the biopsy procedure) and pectoral muscle hemorrhage and discoloration (at sites of injection). Substantial histopathologic lesions were limited to pectoral muscle necrosis, and severity was greater for meloxicam-treated versus control birds.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Meloxicam (2.0 mg/kg, IM, q 12 h for 14 days) did not cause substantial alterations in function of or histopathologic findings for the kidneys of Japanese quail but did induce muscle necrosis; repeated IM administration of meloxicam to quail may be contraindicated.
The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship of diet and management factors with the glandular gastric mucosal microbiome. We hypothesize that the gastric mucosal microbial community is influenced by diet and management factors. Our specific objective is to characterize the gastric mucosal microbiome in relation to these factors.
57 client-owned horses in the southern Louisiana region with and without equine glandular gastric disease.
Diet and management data were collected via a questionnaire. Gastroscopy was used for evaluation of equine gastric ulcer syndrome and collection of glandular mucosal pinch biopsies. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used for microbiome analysis. Similarity and diversity indices and sequence read counts of individual taxa were compared between diet and management factors.
Differences were detected in association with offering hay, type of hay, sweet feed, turnout, and stalling. Offering hay and stalling showed differences in similarity indices, whereas hay type, sweet feed, and turnout showed differences in similarity and diversity indices. Offering hay, hay type, and sweet feed were also associated with differences in individual sequence read counts.
This study provides preliminary characterization of the complex relationship between the glandular gastric microbiome and diet/management factors. The ideal microbiome to promote a healthy glandular gastric environment remains unknown.