To evaluate the effects of 3 electrolyte solutions administered SC to experimentally dehydrated inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).
9 inland bearded dragons.
In a randomized, complete crossover study, experimental dehydration was induced by means of furosemide (10 mg/kg, SC, q 12 h for 4 doses), and then lactated Ringer solution, Plasma-Lyte A, or reptile Ringer solution (RRS; 1:1 mixture of 5% dextrose solution and isotonic crystalloid solution) was administered SC in a single 50-mL/kg dose in 3 treatments sessions separated by a minimum of 14 days. Food and water were withheld during treatment sessions. Plasma biochemical values, PCV, blood total solids and lactate concentrations, and plasma osmolarity were measured prior to (baseline) and 4 and 24 hours after fluid administration.
Administration of RRS resulted in severe hyperglycemia (mean ± SD plasma glucose concentration, 420 ± 62 mg/dL), compared with baseline values (190 ± 32 mg/dL), and this hyperglycemia persisted for at least 24 hours. It also resulted in significant reductions in plasma osmolarity and sodium and phosphorus concentrations, which were not observed after administration of the other 2 solutions. Administration of lactated Ringer solution caused no significant increase in blood lactate concentration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The changes in plasma glucose, sodium, and phosphorus concentrations and plasma osmolarity observed after SC administration of a single dose of RRS suggested this type of electrolyte solution should not be used for rehydration of bearded dragons. Rather, lactated Ringer solution or Plasma-Lyte A should be considered instead.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the diuretic effects and associated changes in hematologic and plasma biochemical values following SC furosemide administration to water-deprived inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).
ANIMALS 9 bearded dragons.
PROCEDURES In a crossover study design, furosemide (5 or 10 mg/kg) was administered SC every 12 hours for 4 doses or no treatment (control treatment) was provided for the same period. Food and water were withheld. Body weight was recorded before (baseline) and 12 hours after treatment sessions ended and then after 5 minutes of soaking in a water bath. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 12 hours after treatment sessions ended for various measurements.
RESULTS Compared with control values, a significant decrease from baseline in body weight was detected after furosemide treatment at 5 and 10 mg/kg (mean ± SD percentage decrease, 5.5 ± 3.2% and 5.2 ± 4.1%, respectively). Soaking resulted in a significant increase in body weight after the 5- and 10-mg/kg furosemide treatments (mean ± SD percentage increase, 2.9 ± 1.8% and 5.6 ± 2.5%, respectively), compared with change in body weight after the control treatment (0.7 ± 0.7%). Plasma total solids and total protein concentrations increased significantly with both furosemide treatments, and PCV increased significantly with the 10 mg/kg treatment only. No significant or relevant differences were identified in plasma osmolarity or uric acid or electrolyte concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Furosemide as administered resulted in hemoconcentration and weight loss in bearded dragons, most likely owing to its diuretic effects. With additional research, furosemide could be considered for treatment of congestive heart failure and other conditions requiring diuresis in bearded dragons.
To determine whether plasma uric acid concentration in inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) was affected by recent ingestion of a meal of crickets.
12 healthy adult inland bearded dragons.
Food was withheld for 48 hours prior to experiments. Animals (6/group) were randomly assigned to receive a meal of crickets (equivalent to 1% of the animal's body weight; 10 g/kg [4.5 g/lb]; treatment group) or have food withheld for an additional 48 hours (control group). Blood samples were collected for plasma uric acid measurement just before (time 0) and 4, 24, and 48 hours after feeding. Effects of feeding and time on the targeted measurement were assessed by repeated-measures ANOVA.
Mean plasma uric acid concentration for the treatment group was significantly increased from the time 0 value (2.5 ± 1.5 mg/dL) 24 hours following meal ingestion (6.5 ± 1.2 mg/dL), but not at the 4-hour time point, and returned to the time 0 value by the 48-hour time point. No significant changes in plasma uric acid concentration were detected for the control group.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested food should be withheld for ≥ 48 hours prior to blood collection if inland bearded dragons are used to establish reference intervals for plasma uric acid concentration or if feasible when obtaining samples from these animals for clinical evaluation. Veterinarians should consider the time from last meal consumption when interpreting plasma uric acid concentration for this species and potentially other terrestrial insectivorous and omnivorous lizards.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of providing 100% O2, compared with provision of room air, in sedated spontaneously breathing inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).
ANIMALS 8 adult bearded dragons.
PROCEDURES Animals were sedated with alfaxalone (20 mg/kg, SC) and received 21% O2 (equivalent to room air) or 100% O2 via face mask (flow rate, 1 L/min) in a randomized, blinded, complete crossover study (2-week interval between treatments). Sedation variables, cardiopulmonary variables, venous blood gas values, and postsedation food intake were evaluated.
RESULTS Respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and sedation quality were comparable between treatments. Venous blood gas analysis revealed a higher total Pco2 and HCO3− concentration for the 21% O2 treatment. Postsedation food intake was not affected by the inspired oxygen fraction provided during sedation.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The fraction of inspired oxygen did not appear to have clinically relevant effects on physiologic variables of bearded dragons during and after sedation. Therefore, provision of 100% O2 can be considered for use in sedated bearded dragons without the risk of inducing hypoventilation. Similarly, failure to provide 100% O2 would be unlikely to result in clinically relevant consequences in healthy sedated bearded dragons.
CASE DESCRIPTION A 5-year-old sexually intact female guinea pig was evaluated because of mild dysuria and a subcutaneous mass located cranioventral to the urogenital openings.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Non–contrast-enhanced CT and surgical exploration of the distal aspect of the urethra revealed a urethral diverticulum with an intraluminal urolith. Analysis revealed that the urolith was composed of calcium carbonate and struvite.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The urolith was surgically removed and ablation of the urethral diverticulum was attempted. Approximately 3 months later, the guinea pig was reevaluated for masses in the perineal region, and positive-contrast urethrocystography revealed 2 uroliths present in the same diverticulum. Uroliths were manually expressed with the patient under general anesthesia. Approximately 2 weeks later, urethroplasty was performed to create an enlarged stoma with the diverticulum, thereby preventing urine from pooling in the diverticulum and potentially reducing the risk of future urolith formation. The urethroplasty site healed well with no reported complications or evidence of urolith recurrence 6 months after surgery.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE Urolithiasis is common in guinea pigs, and urethral diverticulum and intraluminal urolith formation should be considered as a potential differential diagnosis for a subcutaneous mass along the distal aspect of the urethra. Creation of a urethral stoma from a urethral diverticulum via urethroplasty achieved a successful outcome in this patient.