Objective—To assess viability of innervation in bowel segments appearing macroscopically viable from dogs with intussusception.
Animals—7 dogs without gastrointestinal dysfunction that had been euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study (control dogs) and 13 dogs with intussusception that underwent enterectomy and intestinal anastomosis (affected dogs).
Procedures—A total of 31 samples of intestinal tissue were obtained from the control dogs; 28 samples were obtained from affected dogs during surgery. Samples were histologically and immunohistochemically prepared and subjectively scored for degree of vacuolization and staining, respectively. Other data collected included mean muscle cell density of circular and longitudinal muscular layers, ratio between areas of muscular layers, mean number of myenteric plexuses, mean ganglion cell density of myenteric plexuses, and degree of degeneration in neuronal plexuses as estimated through synaptophysin and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) immunoreactivity.
Results—Mean muscle cell density of longitudinal muscular layers, ratio between areas of muscular layers, and synaptophysin immunoreactivity did not differ significantly between affected and control dogs; values of all other variables did. Correlations were evident between mean ganglion cell density in myenteric plexuses and mean muscle cell density in circular muscular layers, degree of neuronal degeneration in myenteric plexuses and NSE immunoreactivity, and degree of neuronal degeneration in myenteric plexuses and mean ganglion cell density of myenteric plexuses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Innervation may be impaired in bowel segments that appear macroscopically viable. Therefore, careful evaluation of preserved surgical margins during enterectomy and enteroanastomosis and monitoring of digestive function after surgery are important.
A 1-year-old externally sexually intact female Great Dane was referred for further evaluation of abnormal and underdeveloped internal reproductive organs.
Physical examination findings included a cranioventrally displaced vulva and a grade 2/6 left apical systolic heart murmur. No uterus or ovaries were identified during abdominal ultrasonography. Computed tomography with retrograde vaginourethrography revealed an underdeveloped uterus and possible left intra-abdominal gonad. Karyotyping revealed mixed sex chromosomes (70% XY and 30% XX). Analysis of a serum sample yielded positive results for anti-Müllerian hormone; other findings included mid range estradiol concentration (48.2 pg/mL [within reference intervals for sexually intact and neutered males and females]), low progesterone concentration (< 0.2 ng/mL [within reference intervals for anestrous females]), and low testosterone concentration (< 20 ng/dL [similar to the expected concentration in neutered males]). Overall, the results of the sex hormone analyses were consistent with findings for either a sexually intact female or a neutered male dog. The dog's cardiac structure and function were echocardiographically normal.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
The dog was anesthetized and underwent laparoscopic gonadectomy. The gonads, although abnormal and underdeveloped, were readily identified intraoperatively and successfully removed. On the basis of histologic findings, the removed gonads were confirmed to be rudimentary testicles. The dog recovered from anesthesia and surgery without complications.
Laparoscopic surgery was effective for visualization of abnormal and hypoplastic reproductive organs when abdominal ultrasonography and CT were of limited diagnostic usefulness, and laparoscopic surgery allowed straightforward gonadectomy in a 78,XX/78,XY chimeric dog.