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  • Author or Editor: Lilia Gutierrez x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following administration of an experimental preparation once or twice during the dry period (45-day period immediately prior to calving during which cows are not milked) and to evaluate its efficacy for the treatment of cows with intramammary infections (IMIs) caused by Staphylococcus aureus at dry off (cessation of milking; first day of dry period), compared with that of an intramammary infusion of ceftiofur.

ANIMALS 172 cows.

PROCEDURES Milk samples were collected for microbiological culture 5 days before dry off and at calving and 15 and 30 days after calving. Cows with Staphylococcus IMIs were randomly assigned to receive an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once at dry off (n = 58) or at dry off and again 20 days later (56) or receive a long-acting intramammary preparation of ceftiofur (500 mg/mammary gland; 56) at dry off. Mammary gland secretions were collected from 5 cows in the tilmicosin-treated groups every 5 days after dry off until calving for determination of tilmicosin concentration.

RESULTS Mean maximum concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions ranged from 14.4 to 20.9 μg/mL after the first dose and was 17.1 μg/mL after the second dose. The bacteriologic cure rate was 100% for all 3 treatments. Tilmicosin was detectable for 0 and 18 days after calving in the milk of cows treated with 1 and 2 doses of tilmicosin, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once to dairy cows at dry off might be useful for the treatment of S aureus IMIs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics after SC administration of an experimental, long-acting parenteral formulation of doxycycline hyclate in a poloxamer-based matrix and after IV and IM administration of an aqueous formulation of doxycycline hyclate in goats.

Animals—30 clinically normal adult goats.

Procedures—Goats were allocated to 3 groups (10 goats/group). One group of goats received doxycycline hyclate (10 mg/kg) IM, a second group received the same dosage of doxycycline hyclate IV, and the third group received the long-acting parenteral formulation of doxycycline hyclate SC. Serum concentrations of doxycycline were determined before and at various intervals after administration.

Results—The long-acting parenteral formulation of doxycycline hyclate had the greatest bioavailability (545%); mean ± SD maximum serum concentration was 2.4 ± 0.95 μg/mL, peak time to maximum concentration was 19.23 ± 2.03 hours, and elimination half-life was 40.92 ± 4.25 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the long-acting parenteral formulation of doxycycline hyclate distributed quickly and widely throughout the body after a single dose administered SC, and there was a prolonged half-life. Bioavailability of the longacting parenteral formulation of doxycycline hyclate after SC administration was excellent, compared with bioavailability after IV and IM administration of an aqueous formulation of doxycycline hyclate. Although no local tissue irritation and adverse effects were detected, clinical assessment of drug-residues and toxicologic evaluations are warranted before this long-acting parenteral formulation of doxycycline hyclate can be considered for use in goats with bacterial infections.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of doxycycline hyclate administered orally in the form of experimental formulations with different proportions of acrylic acid–polymethacrylate-based matrices.

ANIMALS 30 healthy adult dogs.

PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs were randomly assigned (in groups of 10) to receive a single oral dose (20 mg/kg) of doxycycline hyclate without excipients (control) or extended-release formulations (ERFs) containing doxycycline, acrylic acid polymer, and polymethacrylate in the following proportions: 1:0.5:0.0075 (ERF1) or 1:1:0.015 (ERF2). Serum concentrations of doxycycline were determined for pharmacokinetic analysis before and at several intervals after each treatment.

RESULTS Following oral administration to the study dogs, each ERF resulted in therapeutic serum doxycycline concentrations for 48 hours, whereas the control treatment resulted in therapeutic serum doxycycline concentrations for only 24 hours. All pharmacokinetic parameters for ERF1 and ERF2 were significantly different; however, findings for ERF1 did not differ significantly from those for the control treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that both ERFs containing doxycycline, acrylic acid polymer, and polymethacrylate had an adequate pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship for a time-dependent drug and a longer release time than doxycycline alone following oral administration in dogs. Given the minimum effective serum doxycycline concentration of 0.26 μg/mL, a dose interval of 48 hours can be achieved for each tested ERF. This minimum inhibitory concentration has the potential to be effective against several susceptible bacteria involved in important infections in dogs. Treatment of dogs with either ERF may have several benefits over treatment with doxycycline alone.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research