OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcomes following treatment of sarcoids in equids and to identify risk factors for treatment failure in these patients.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 230 equids with 614 sarcoids.
PROCEDURES Records were searched to identify equids treated for ≥ 1 sarcoid between 2008 and 2013. A standardized protocol was used to determine treatment choice (electrosurgery, electrosurgery with intralesional placement of cisplatin-containing beads, topical administration of imiquimod or acyclovir, cryosurgery, bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine injection, or intralesional injection of platinum-containing drugs). Data regarding animal, tumor, treatment, and outcome variables were collected. Complete tumor regression without recurrence for ≥ 6 months was considered a successful outcome. Success rates were calculated; binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for treatment failure and to compare effects of the 2 topical treatments. A χ2 test was used to compare effects of the number of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine or cisplatin-containing drug injections on outcome.
RESULTS The overall success rate was 460 of 614 (74.9%). Electrosurgical excision resulted in the highest treatment success rate (277/319 [86.8%]); odds of treatment failure were significantly greater for intralesional injection of platinum-containing drugs, cryosurgery, and topical acyclovir treatment. Odds of treatment failure were also significantly greater for sarcoids on equids with multiple tumors than for solitary lesions, and significantly lower for sarcoids on equids that received concurrent immunostimulating treatment for another sarcoid than for those on patients that did not receive such treatment.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Selection bias for treatments was inherent to the study design; however, results may assist clinicians in selecting treatments and in determining prognosis for equids with sarcoids treated according to the described methods.
Objective—To develop a practical ultrasonography-guided injection approach to anesthetic blockade of the femoral nerve in calves and to assess the method's accuracy.
Animals—13 cadavers of 4-week-old male Holstein Friesian calves.
Procedures—Detailed topographic and anatomic cross-sectional evaluation of the relevant topography in 3 cadavers was performed to identify optimal injection approaches to the femoral nerve. Three approaches (ventral paravertebral, dorsal paravertebral, and ileal) were evaluated by simulated ultrasonography-guided perineural injection of methylene blue dye in 10 cadavers. Ultrasonographic image quality, number of needle redirections required for correct needle positioning, and injection success as defined through a 3-point grading system were recorded.
Results—The dorsal paravertebral approach yielded the best results, compared with the ileal and ventral paravertebral approaches, to properly and adequately stain the targeted nerve.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The dorsal paravertebral injection technique appeared to be the best choice for performing a femoral nerve block in calves, although this technique will need to be further evaluated in live calves to determine its effectiveness and clinical usefulness. Diagnostic perineural anesthesia of the femoral nerve in cattle might be helpful in identifying quadriceps muscle involvement in those with complex spastic paresis.