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  • Clostridium perfringens is the most common cause of clostridial enteric disease in domestic animals.

  • Many individuals have suggested that isolation of C perfringens type A from a horse with enteric disease is of little importance, even when other likely causes are ruled out; however, it appears that enterotoxigenic C perfringens type A may cause enteric disease in horses.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

During a 3-year period, 4 cases of bovine abortion attributable to Listeria ivanovii were diagnosed from 243 bovine fetuses submitted for diagnostic evaluation. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated only once from a bovine fetus during this same time period. Pathologic findings were similar to those seen in abortions attributable to L monocytogenes. Consistent management factors were not recognized and breed susceptibility was not apparent. Listeria ivanovii is most often associated with abortions from sheep and is rarely reported from cattle. On the basis of findings in this study, L ivanovii must be included as a potential cause of bovine abortions.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify serum biochemical and hematologic variables, as measured in the week before parturition, that predict postpartum retention of the placenta (RP) in dairy cows.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—1,038 cows in 20 commercial dairy herds.

Procedures—Serum concentrations of fatty acids (FAs), β-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, glucose, urea, and calcium and blood leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts were determined. These variables were evaluated for an association with development of RP by use of a multivariate logistic regression model. Parity, season of par-turition, existence of twins or dystocia, body condition score, and vitamin E treatment were included in the model as covariates.

Results—High serum concentrations of cholesterol and FAs were associated with an increased odds of RP. There was a 5% relative increase in the odds of RP for each 0.1 mmol/L increase in cholesterol or FAs concentration in the week before parturition. Season of parturition and twinning were also identified as risk factors.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These associations indicated that prepartum energy metabolism contributes to the development of RP. Serum concentrations of cholesterol and FAs may be useful to identify cows with a metabolic abnormality or energy imbalance that might predispose them to RP and should be interpreted in conjunction with clinical risk factors such as twinning, dystocia, or parturient paresis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To investigate relationships of several racehorse characteristics and race conditions with risk of a catastrophic musculoskeletal injury (CMI) resulting in euthanasia in Thoroughbreds during racing in California in 1992.

Design

Retrospective longitudinal study.

Animals

Thoroughbreds that incurred CMI during racing and all California race entrants in 1992.

Procedure

Necropsy records were reviewed, and race start information was obtained. Incidence risk of CMI/1,000 race entrants was estimated. Relationships between CMI during racing and race-meet, entrant age and sex, race type and length, and racing surface type and condition were evaluated by use of logistic regression.

Results

Incidence risk of CMI was 1.7/1,000 entrants. A higher risk of CMI was found at 2 fair race-meets, with incidence risks of 4.9 and 5.5/1,000 entrants. Risk of injury in male horses was 1.7 times greater than that in female horses, and influence of age on risk depended on race type. Risk of injury for horses 2 to 5 years old was two times greater for claiming horses than for maiden horses. Race length or racing surface type (dirt vs turf) or condition (fast, muddy, yielding) were not significantly associated with risk of CMI.

Clinical Implications

Incidence of CMI was similar among 12 of 14 major and fair race-meets and among various race lengths and racing surface types and conditions, whereas incidence of CMI was influenced by entrant age and sex as well as race type. Investigators should consider controlling for age and sex, race-meet, and race type whenever possible in studies of risk of CMI. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:544-549)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate hoof size, shape, and balance as risk factors for catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries (CMI), including suspensory apparatus failure (SAF) and cannon bone condylar fracture (CDY) in Thoroughbred racehorses.

Animals

95 Thoroughbred racehorses that died between 1994 and 1996.

Procedure

38 quantitative measures of hoof size, shape, and balance were obtained from orthogonal digital images of the hoof and were compared between case horses with forelimb CMI (70), SAF (43), and CDY (10) injuries and control horses whose death was unrelated to the musculoskeletal system (non-CMI, 25). Comparison of group means between cases and controls was done using ANOVA, and multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios.

Results

Odds of CMI were 0.62 times lower for a 5- mm increase in ground surface width difference and 0.49 times lower for a 100-mm2 increase in sole area difference. Odds of SAF were 6.75 times greater with a 10° increase in toe-heel angle difference and 0.58 times lower with a 100-mm2 increase in sole area difference. Odds of CDY were 0.26 times lower with a 3° increase in toe angle, 0.15 times lower with a 5- mm increase in lateral ground surface width, and 0.35 times lower with a 100-mm2 increase in sole area difference.

Clinical Relevance

Decreasing the difference between toe and heel angles should decrease risk of SAF for Thoroughbred racehorses and should be considered in addition to increasing toe angle alone to help prevent catastrophic injury. Trimming the hoof to perfect mediolateral symmetry may not be a sound approach to avoiding injury. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59: 1545-1552)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To characterize and contrast data from Thoroughbreds that incurred a fatal musculoskeletal injury ( fmi; injury resulting in death or euthanasia) during racing or training and data from all California race entrants during a 9-month period in 1991.

Design

Case-control study.

Animals

Thoroughbreds that incurred a fmi during racing or training at a California race-meet and all California race entrants from January through June and October through December 1991.

Procedure

Age and sex were compared with χ2 and Fisher's exact tests among horses fatally injured while racing and training. A log-linear model was fit to assess the relationship between race-meet and age and sex of California race entrants. Incidence risk of racing fmi was estimated per 1,000 race entrants, and the relationship between the occurrence of fmi during racing with race-meet, age, and sex was evaluated by logistic regression.

Results

Injury type and sex-specific age distributions differed among the horses fatally injured during racing and training. Age and sex distributions of the race entrants were not independent and varied among race-meets. Overall incidence risk of racing fmi was estimated at 1.7/1,000 race entrants. Risk of racing fmi in male horses was about twofold that in female horses, and in 4-year-olds was twofold that in 3-year-olds.

Clinical Implications

Age- and sex-related differences in risk of incurring a fmi during racing should be considered when comparing fatal injury rates among race-meets.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the distribution for limbs and bones in horses with fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones and relationships with findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images.

Sample Population—Proximal sesamoid bones obtained from both forelimbs of cadavers of 328 racing Thoroughbreds.

Procedure—Osteophytes; large vascular channels; and fracture location, orientation, configuration, and margin distinctness were categorized by use of high-detail contact palmarodorsal radiographs. Distributions of findings were determined. Relationships between radiographic findings and fracture characteristics were examined by use of χ2 and logistic regression techniques.

Results—Fractures were detected in 136 (41.5%) horses. Biaxial fractures were evident in 109 (80%) horses with a fracture. Osteophytes and large vascular channels were evident in 266 (81%) and 325 (99%) horses, respectively. Medial bones typically had complete transverse or split transverse simple fractures, indistinct fracture margins, > 1 vascular channel that was > 1 mm in width, and osteophytes in abaxial wing and basilar middle or basilar abaxial locations. Lateral bones typically had an oblique fracture and distinct fracture margins. Odds of proximal sesamoid bone fracture were approximately 2 to 5 times higher in bones without radiographic evidence of osteophytes or large vascular channels, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Biaxial fractures of proximal sesamoid bones were common in cadavers of racing Thoroughbreds. Differences between medial and lateral bones for characteristics associated with fracture may relate to differences in fracture pathogeneses for these bones. Osteophytes and vascular channels were common findings; however, fractures were less likely to occur in bones with these features.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research