Objective—To compare results of the most common diagnostic tests for pulmonary blastomycosis in dogs, identify factors associated with outcome, and determine response to various antifungal treatment protocols.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—125 dogs with pulmonary blastomycosis.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed, and information was obtained regarding diagnostic methods, results of routine laboratory testing, and radiographic response to antifungal treatment.
Results—79 dogs survived, 38 died, and 8 were euthanized. Transthoracic fine-needle aspiration and transtracheal lavage were the most common diagnostic methods. Results of an agar gel immunodiffusion test for antibodies against Blastomyces dermatitidis were negative in 12 of 24 (50%) dogs. Only 3 of 94 (3.2%) dogs in which cytologic or histologic examination or bacterial culture of pulmonary samples were performed had any evidence of concurrent bacterial infection. The half-time for radiographic resolution of pulmonary infiltrates did not vary significantly with antifungal treatment, and use of a loading dosage of itraconazole was not associated with significant improvements in outcome or time to disease resolution. Dogs that died had a higher number of band neutrophils at initial examination, compared with those that survived.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the agar gel immunodiffusion test should not be used as the sole diagnostic test for pulmonary blastomycosis in dogs, that concurrent bacterial pneumonia was uncommon in dogs with pulmonary blastomycosis, and that the rate with which pulmonary infiltrates resolved did not vary significantly among antifungal treatments.
Objective—To determine blood ionized calcium (iCa) and serum total calcium (tCa) concentrations in dogs with blastomycosis and to evaluate whether serum tCa concentration, albumin-adjusted serum calcium concentration (AdjCa-Alb), and total protein–adjusted serum calcium concentration (AdjCa-TP) accurately predict iCa status.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—38 client-owned dogs with a cytologic diagnosis of blastomycosis.
Procedures—Dogs were classified as hypocalcemic, normocalcemic, or hypercalcemic on the basis of blood iCa concentration, serum tCa concentration, AdjCa-Alb, and AdjCa-TP; classification on the basis of serum tCa concentration, AdjCa-Alb, and AdjCa-TP was compared with blood iCa concentration.
Results—Except for 2 hypercalcemic dogs, all dogs had blood iCa concentrations within the reference interval. Use of serum tCa concentration overestimated hypocalcemia in 57.9% (22/38) of dogs and underestimated hypercalcemia in 1 dog. Use of AdjCa-Alb correctly reclassified all dogs as normocalcemic that were classified as hypocalcemic on the basis of serum tCa concentration, but failed to predict hypercalcemia in 1 dog. Use of AdjCa-TP correctly reclassified all but 2 dogs as normocalcemic that were classified as hypocalcemic on the basis of serum tCa concentration, and failed to predict hypercalcemia in 1 dog. No correlation was found between blood iCa concentration and serum concentrations of tCa, total protein, and albumin; AdjCa-Alb; or AdjCa-TP.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—High blood iCa concentration was uncommon in dogs with blastomycosis. Hypoalbuminemia contributed to a low serum tCa concentration despite a blood iCa concentration within reference limits. The use of serum tCa concentration, AdjCa-Alb, and AdjCa-TP may fail to identify a small number of dogs with high blood iCa concentrations.
Objective—To determine whether dogs with renal failure have higher serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations than healthy dogs.
Animals—31 dogs with renal failure and 51 healthy dogs.
Procedures—Serum concentrations of creatinine and cardiac troponin I, urine specific gravity, and systolic arterial blood pressure were measured for all dogs. Dogs underwent a standardized physical examination, and any dog with evidence of cardiovascular disease or other nonrenal disease was excluded from final analyses. Dogs were considered to be in renal failure when the serum creatinine concentration was ≥ 3.0 mg/dL, urine specific gravity was between 1.007 and 1.030, and renal failure had been clinically diagnosed.
Results—Dogs with renal failure had significantly higher serum cTnI concentrations (median, 0.35 ng/mL) than did healthy dogs (0.20 ng/mL). The renal failure group also had a significantly higher median systolic blood pressure (156 mm Hg) than did healthy dogs (138 mm Hg), although serum cTnI concentration was not correlated with systolic blood pressure in dogs with renal failure. There was no significant difference in age between dogs with renal failure and healthy dogs, but dogs with renal failure had significantly higher serum creatinine concentration and lower urine specific gravity.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although dogs with renal failure did not have overt clinical signs of cardiac disease, they had high serum cTnI concentrations, which may have been associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease. The cause of the high serum cTnI concentration in these dogs requires additional investigation.