Objective—To determine whether dogs with renal failure have higher serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations than healthy dogs.
Animals—31 dogs with renal failure and 51 healthy dogs.
Procedures—Serum concentrations of creatinine and cardiac troponin I, urine specific gravity, and systolic arterial blood pressure were measured for all dogs. Dogs underwent a standardized physical examination, and any dog with evidence of cardiovascular disease or other nonrenal disease was excluded from final analyses. Dogs were considered to be in renal failure when the serum creatinine concentration was ≥ 3.0 mg/dL, urine specific gravity was between 1.007 and 1.030, and renal failure had been clinically diagnosed.
Results—Dogs with renal failure had significantly higher serum cTnI concentrations (median, 0.35 ng/mL) than did healthy dogs (0.20 ng/mL). The renal failure group also had a significantly higher median systolic blood pressure (156 mm Hg) than did healthy dogs (138 mm Hg), although serum cTnI concentration was not correlated with systolic blood pressure in dogs with renal failure. There was no significant difference in age between dogs with renal failure and healthy dogs, but dogs with renal failure had significantly higher serum creatinine concentration and lower urine specific gravity.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although dogs with renal failure did not have overt clinical signs of cardiac disease, they had high serum cTnI concentrations, which may have been associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease. The cause of the high serum cTnI concentration in these dogs requires additional investigation.
Objective—To compare results of the most common diagnostic tests for pulmonary blastomycosis in dogs, identify factors associated with outcome, and determine response to various antifungal treatment protocols.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—125 dogs with pulmonary blastomycosis.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed, and information was obtained regarding diagnostic methods, results of routine laboratory testing, and radiographic response to antifungal treatment.
Results—79 dogs survived, 38 died, and 8 were euthanized. Transthoracic fine-needle aspiration and transtracheal lavage were the most common diagnostic methods. Results of an agar gel immunodiffusion test for antibodies against Blastomyces dermatitidis were negative in 12 of 24 (50%) dogs. Only 3 of 94 (3.2%) dogs in which cytologic or histologic examination or bacterial culture of pulmonary samples were performed had any evidence of concurrent bacterial infection. The half-time for radiographic resolution of pulmonary infiltrates did not vary significantly with antifungal treatment, and use of a loading dosage of itraconazole was not associated with significant improvements in outcome or time to disease resolution. Dogs that died had a higher number of band neutrophils at initial examination, compared with those that survived.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the agar gel immunodiffusion test should not be used as the sole diagnostic test for pulmonary blastomycosis in dogs, that concurrent bacterial pneumonia was uncommon in dogs with pulmonary blastomycosis, and that the rate with which pulmonary infiltrates resolved did not vary significantly among antifungal treatments.
OBJECTIVE To describe cytologic characteristics of renal fine-needle aspirate (FNA) samples from dogs, evaluate proportions of cytologic specimens deemed adequate for interpretation (diagnostic yield), assess diagnostic utility of cytologic examination for neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases, and characterize ultrasonographic features of evaluated kidneys to determine whether the imaging characteristics could be used to inform cytologic interpretations.
DESIGN Retrospective, observational study.
SAMPLE 102 cytologic specimens and 97 ultrasonographic studies from 100 dogs.
PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent ultrasound-guided renal FNA. Slides were categorized as adequate or inadequate for interpretation; adequate slides were used for retrospective cytologic diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of cytologic examination for detection of neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions were calculated by comparison with histologic or lymphoid cell clonality assay results. Ultrasonographic characteristics of neoplastic and nonneoplastic renal lesions were described.
RESULTS 74 of 102 (72%) specimens had slides adequate for interpretation; 26 were included in the diagnostic accuracy analysis. Sensitivity of cytologic examination was 78% and 50% for detection of neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions, respectively, with specificities of 50% and 77%, respectively; sensitivity for detection of lymphoma was 100%. Ultrasonographic appearance of kidneys with confirmed neoplasia varied; masses were most commonly found in kidneys with carcinoma (5/5), lymphoma (5/7), or other neoplasia (3/4) and absent in kidneys with nonneoplastic conditions (n = 5).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Renal FNA specimens were adequate for interpretation at rates comparable with those reported for other organs and were considered clinically useful for diagnosis of neoplasia. Imaging characteristics may potentially aid differentiation between neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions; however, further investigation is needed.