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  • Colonic adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor of glandular crypt epithelium in middle-aged and older horses; the tumor may metastasize to the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and lungs, but it has not been reported to metastasize to bone and muscle.

  • Clinical signs of abdominal neoplasia may be vague and nonspecific; extensive diagnostic testing of these animals often is required.

  • Radionucleotide imaging, using technetium Tc 99m hydroxymethylene diphosphate in conjunction with technetium Tc 99m hexamethylpropylenamine oxime, can be a sensitive noninvasive tool to identify the nature of a disseminated disease when radiography is not sensitive enough to detect early osteoblastic changes that precede morphologic changes.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To identify clinical signs, physical examination findings, results of diagnostic tests, treatments administered, and clinical outcome of neonatal foals with enterocolitis associated with Clostridium perfringens infection.


Retrospective study.


54 neonatal foals.


Most foals had acute onset of obtunded mentation, colic, or diarrhea and developed leukopenia, neutropenia, an abnormally high number of band neutrophils, toxic WBC, and hypoproteinemia within 24 hours after admission, despite high serum lgG concentrations (> 800 mg/dl). Abdominocentesis and abdominal radiography of some foals revealed exudative peritonitis and gaseous distention of the small and large intestine, respectively. Cytologic examination of feces revealed spores or gram-positive rods in 8 of 10 foals. The most common genotypes of C perfringens isolates were type A and C, alone or in combination. Treatment did not alter mortality rate for most foals that had a positive culture for C perfringens type C. Of 54 foals, 29 (54%) that had C perfringens-associated enterocolitis died. Foals that had a culture that yielded C perfringens had higher sepsis scores, IgG concentrations, and mortality rates, compared with the overall hospital population of neonatal foals.

Clinical Implications

Foals less than 7 days old that have enterocolitis associated with C perfringens infections, especially type C, have a guarded prognosis. Cytologic examination of feces to determine spore counts and detect rods may be a means for early identification of C perfringens infections. Polymerase chain reaction assays to determine genotype are important for designing preventive treatment regimens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1751–1756)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association