Objective—To evaluate pituitary-adrenal function in a
population of critically ill dogs by measuring serial
plasma concentrations of basal cortisol, ACTH-stimulated
cortisol, and endogenous ACTH.
Animals—20 critically ill dogs admitted to an intensive
care unit (ICU).
Procedure—Basal plasma cortisol, ACTH-stimulated
cortisol, and endogenous ACTH concentrations were
measured for each dog within 24 hours of admission
and daily until death, euthanasia, or discharge from
the ICU. Established reference ranges for healthy
dogs were used for comparison. Survival prediction
index (SPI) scores were calculated for each dog within
24 hours of admission.
Results—No significant difference was found
between initial concentrations of basal cortisol,
ACTH-stimulated cortisol, and endogenous ACTH in
13 dogs that survived and those in 7 dogs that died.
High initial basal endogenous ACTH concentrations
were correlated with subsequent high values. Low
basal ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations were
predictive of higher subsequent values. All basal and
ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations were within
or above the reference range in the 52 plasma samples
collected from the 20 dogs during hospitalization.
The SPI scores correlated with outcome (ie, alive or
dead), but none of the plasma hormone concentrations
correlated with SPI score or outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate
that none of the critically ill dogs in our study
population developed adrenal insufficiency during
hospitalization in the ICU. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To evaluate clinical safety of administration
of injectable enrofloxacin.
Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Animals—24 adult horses.
Procedures—Healthy horses were randomly allocated
into 4 equal groups that received placebo injections
(control) or IV administration of enrofloxacin (5
mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], 15 mg/kg [6.8 mg/lb], or 25 mg/kg
[11.4 mg/lb] of body weight, q 24 h) for 21 days. Joint
angles, cross-sectional area of superficial and deep
digital flexor and calcaneal tendons, carpal or tarsal
osteophytes or lucency, and midcarpal and tarsocrural
articular cartilage lesions were measured. Physical
and lameness examinations were performed daily.
Measurements were repeated after day 21, and articular
cartilage and bone biopsy specimens were examined.
Results—Enrofloxacin did not induce changes in
most variables during administration or for 7 days
after administration. One horse (dosage, 15 mg/kg)
developed lameness and cellulitis around the tarsal
plantar ligament during the last week of administration.
One horse (dosage, 15 mg/kg) developed mild
superficial digital flexor tendinitis, and 1 horse
(dosage, 25 mg/kg) developed tarsal sheath effusion
without lameness 3 days after the last administration.
High doses of enrofloxacin (15 and 25 mg/kg) administered
by bolus injection intermittently induced transient
neurologic signs that completely resolved within
10 minutes without long-term effects. Slower injection
and dilution of the dose ameliorated the neurologic
signs. Adverse reactions were not detected with
a 5 mg/kg dose administered IV as a bolus.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Enrofloxacin
administered IV once daily at the rate of 5 mg/kg for
3 weeks is safe in adult horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc