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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the surgical technique and clinical outcome of small ruminants treated for obstructive urolithiasis using a modified tube cystostomy (MTC) technique.

ANIMALS

15 goats and 2 sheep treated with an MTC between March 2018 and February 2023.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION

Animals were diagnosed with obstructive urolithiasis on the basis of history, physical examination, and ultrasonographic examination. An MTC was performed with sedation and a local block. Postoperative medical management was instituted to help reestablish urethral patency, and Foley catheters were removed after successful urination.

RESULTS

Animals were hospitalized an average of 3 nights (range, 0 to 14 nights). Complications included urine spillage in the abdomen and accidental deflation of the Foley balloon. Six animals were euthanized due to poor prognosis or failure to regain urethral patency. Foley catheters were removed an average of 15.7 days postoperatively in animals that regained urethral patency. Long-term (> 1-month) follow-up was available for 8 animals, with an average postoperative survival time of 19.4 months (range, 1 to 58 months). Four animals were lost to long-term follow-up.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This MTC technique is an effective means of catheterizing the urinary bladder in small ruminants. It can be performed under field conditions and serve as a standalone procedure for providing temporary urine egress. Patient size is limited by the length of the introducer, and an intact, distended urinary bladder and plan for reestablishing urethral patency are important considerations.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

This study sought to determine whether firocoxib (FIRO) or meloxicam (MEL) was effective at providing analgesia after surgical castration in goats.

ANIMALS

18 intact male crossbred goats (6 to 8 months old) were enrolled with a mean weight of 32.6 (± 2.9) kg.

METHODS

Surgical castration was done under injectable anesthesia by a licensed veterinarian. Twelve bucks were surgically castrated and given either FIRO (n = 6) or MEL (n = 6). Six bucks served as controls (CNTLs) and were not castrated. Outcome measurements included visual analogue scale, infrared thermography, plasma cortisol, plasma substance P, and kinetic gait analysis. All outcome measurements were obtained at –24, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours.

RESULTS

All 3 treatments were significantly different from each other at the 24- and 48-hour time points, with MEL animals having lower visual analogue scale scores when compared to FIRO animals; CNTL animals exhibited the lowest plasma cortisol levels (3.19 ng/mL; 95% CI, –1.21 to 7.59 ng/mL) followed by FIRO (7.45 ng/mL; 95% CI, 3.10 to 11.80 ng/mL) and MEL (10.24 ng/mL; 95% CI, 5.87 to 14.60 ng/mL). FIRO had an average mean decrease in gait velocity change (–54.17 cm/s; 95% CI, –92.99 to –15.35 cm/s), while MEL had an increase in gait velocity when compared to baseline values (14.54 cm/s; 95% CI, –24.27 to 53.36 cm/s). Control animals had an average mean of –3.06 cm/s (95% CI, –41.88 to 35.75 cm/s).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results from this study showed that there were some analgesic effects from administering MEL when compared to bucks that received a placebo treatment (CNTL).

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association